1. (i) Archaeology
(ii) Oral traditions
(iv) Anthropology
(v) Botany/Zoology /biology/Genetics
(vi) Written records
(vii) Geology
(viii) Local paintings/sculpture (2mks)

2. (i) Hunting wild animals
(ii) Gathering wild fruits, roots and vegetables
(iii) Fishing
(iv) Crop farming
(v) Administration
(vi) Trading
(vii) Making stone implements
(viii) Pottery (2mrks)

3. i) Trade
ii) Mining
iii) Religion
iv) Agriculture
v) Administration
vi) Trading
vii) Security
viii) Education centres e.g Alexandria
ix) Availability of water (2mks)

4. i) Making royal regalia
ii) Making status of rulers, noble men and warriors
iii) Making ornaments/decorations
iv) Making religious Figurines e.g gods
v) Making weapons (1mk)


5. i) Telephone
ii) Telegram
iii) Telex
iv) Fax
v) E-mail
vi) Television
vii) Radio
viii) Courier letter
6. i) Tobacco
ii) Cotton
iii) Corn/Maize
iv) Wheat (2mks)
7. a) Barter trade is the exchange of goods for other goods/trade in kind (1mk)
b) i) Some commodities are bulky/ heavy and are difficultly to transport
ii) It may not be easy to establish the exchange rate of commodities
iii) Perishable goods are likely to go to waste if negotiations are not done in time (1mk)
iv) It requires double coincidence of demands (1mk)
i) Indivisibility of some commodities (1mk)
8. i) It made laws for the kingdom
ii) It checked on the activities of the government
iii) It presented the interests of the people/countries
iv) It advised the Kabaka (2mks)


9. i) The Mandinka Empire

10. i) Jihad/Holy wars
ii) Missionary activities of Muslims scholars
iii) Commercial interactions /Interactions/Intermarriage
iv) Influence of already converted African rulers
v) Intermarriage
vi) Migration of Muslims /Arabs.
vii) Fear of being enslaved

11. i) Indirect rule
ii) Direct rule
12. – A body of fundamental principles on which the government of a state is based
– A system of laws and principles on which the government of a state is based.
13. i) The AOU provided material support to freedom fighters e.g. arms
ii) It gave financial support to freedom fighters
iii) It provided military training camps and other facilities to freedom fighter
iv) It presented the problem of the nationalists in international form.
v) It provides the nationalist with a forum to air their grievances
vi) Provision of refugee camps for the displaced nationalists
vii) Provided education to the members of the liberation movement
viii) It campaigned for sanctions against the oppressive southern African regimes in international form

14. i) World Health Organization (WHO)
ii) United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)



15. a)
i) The development of steam engines facilitated faster transportation of raw materials and finished industrial product.
ii) Provided a source of energy in the factories e.g. the spinning factory
iii) It was used to pump water out of the mines to facilitate mining e.g the coal mines
iv) Facilitated faster transportation of industrial workers. (3mks)


i) Provision of Education which emphasized on technical training
ii) Japanese work ethics which discouraged idleness and encouraged hardworking
iii) Government policy which granted subsidies to industrial entrepreneurs led to industrial growth.
iv) Availability of raw materials from within Japan e.g. silk and from other Asian countries which they colonized e.g. cotton from China.
v) A well established industrial base. By 1954 Japan had well developed industrial base upon which other industries were built.
vi) Availability of local and internal markets stimulated industrial growth
vii) Existence of a labour force with industrial know – how
viii) Availability of capital from local and foreign investors, especially the USA financial aid which was provided after the 2nd World War (the Marshal plan) stimulated industrial growth of Japan
ix) Availability of energy e.g. H.E.P stimulated industrial growth. (12mks)

16. a)

i) Existence of enterprising North Africa merchants.
ii) Availability of trading items e.g. gold from West Africa and salt mines of the Sahara desert.
iii) Availability of capital provided by the Berber merchants of North Africa
iv) Demand for scarce goods in North Africa and West Africa
v) Presence of Tauregs who guided the traders through the Sahara desert
vi) Presence of capable rulers who offered protection of traders.
vii) Presence of Oasis
viii) Use of camels and horse.


i) The trade led to the development of towns in West Africa e.g. Gao Timbuku
ii) It led to the spread of Islam and Islamic learning in West Africa
iii) The trade led to the emergence of a class of wealthy people the merchants who participated in the trade.
iv) The trade promoted intermarriage between North African and West African.
v) Growth in Agricultural production
vi) Increase warfare
vii) The trade introduced new cultural values in West Africa e.g. people adopted new styles of dressing and eating habits.
viii) Trade led to the introduction of Arab architectural designs in West Africa.
ix) Trade led to the introduction of Empires e.g. Mali Soghai and Ghana.
x) It led to the depopulation of West Africa through slave trade.
xi) West Africa was known to the outside world. (12mks)

17. a)
i) They are all weather roads.
ii) They are durable
iii) Water drain off easily
iv) They provide a good motoring surface. (3mks)

i) Railway transport led to expansion of trade in Europe as goods were quickly transported from one point to another.
ii) Facilitated the movement of people from one place to another thus promoted greater interaction among people.
iii) Railway transport promoted agricultural growth as it assured farmers of means of transporting their goods.
iv) The railway transport provided employment opportunities
v) The development of railway transported led to growth of expansion of urban centres.
vi) It facilitated the development of industries in Europe by providing quick means of transporting raw material, finished materials and industrial workers.
vii) It led to environmental pollution through emission of large amounts of carbon dioxide/ smoke into the atmospheres.

18. a)
i) Existence of already established trade routes/ which connected the African coastal raiding posts with the interior facilitated the movement of the missionaries.

(ii) Use of guides and porters made the movement of the missionaries and the transportation of their luggage easy
(iii) The learning of local languages by the missionaries facilitated their activities among different communities.
(iv) Training African catechists and other religious leaders helped in spreading Christianity in Africa.
(v) The discovery of cure of some tropical diseases e.g. quinine for treating malaria fever, reduced the number of death cases among the missionaries
(vi) Support and protection given to missionaries by some African rulers e.g. Lewanika of Bulonzi promoted missionary activities.
(vii) Support from the church organization in Europe enabled the missionaries to carry out their activities
(viii) Support from the colonial government (e.g. protection against some hostile communities) enabled the missionaries to carry out their activities.
(ix) The establishment of mission stations which were used as bases from which were used as bases from which they operated the stations also provided other social services e.g. health care.
(x) Translocation of the Bible and other Christian literature made Christianity accessible to many African communities.(12 mks)



19. a)
i) They signed treaties with the local ruler
ii) They used military force to subdue communities which resisted
iii) They signed treaties among themselves to partition Africa e.g. the 1890 Angola-German agreement which German gave Witu to Britain and Britain gave Heligoland to German.
iv) Use of treaty / tricks/ deception

i) In order to protect his Kingdom against the Germans and Portuguese
ii) Lewanika desire western education and civilization and wanted the British to introduce it in his country
iii) Lewanika wanted the British to protect him against his internal enemies e.g. in 1884 Lewanika forced an internal rebellion.
iv) Lewanika was encouraged to collaborate with the British by King Khama of Botswana who has already sought British to protect his Kingdom from attacks by other African communities such as the Nebela and Shona.
v) Lewanika wanted the British to protect his kingdom from attacks by other African communities such as the Ndebela and Shona.
vii) Desire to promote trade between his people and British
viii) Lewanika was influenced by the European missionaries who had visited earlier, to collaborate.

i) A high percentage of the Mullatoes in the population of the communes who appreciated the European culture, made it easy for the French to apply their policy of assimilation.
ii) The people in the four communes had long interaction with the French trades, administrators and missionaries and this enabled them to appreciate European culture.
iii) A high percentage of the inhabitants of the four communes had been converted to Christianity and this made it possible for the French to apply their policy.

b) i) The application of the assimilation policy lead to the promotion of French culture in Senegal
ii) The policy of assimilation undermined African culture as many adopted French culture.
iii) It undermined the authority of the traditional rulers as they were replaced by the assimilated Africans
iv) Senegal was incorporated into French Republic and regarded as an overseas province of France.
v) Africans from Senegal were allowed to participate in the political affairs of France. Some of them became Deputies and Ministers in the French government.
vi) It undermined the spread of Islam in the four communes where many Africans had adopted French Christianity
vii) It created division among Africans; in Senegal some became citizens while other became French people.
viii) It created a class of western/ French education in the four communes
ix) It led to the development of Western/French education in the four communes.
x) Class of African elite spearheaded nationalism.
21. a)
i) The prime Minister is the leader of the House of Commons
ii) Is the head of the British government
iii) Chairs cabinet meetings
iv) Appoints and dismisses ministers
v) Initiates both domestic and foreign policies
vi) Represents Britain.


i) The federal government of USA formulates and directs foreign policy
ii) It regulates internal and external trade.
iii) It declares war and makes peace with other nations of the world
iv) It gives currency to the members states of the federation and regulates its supply
v) It formulates and enforces policy guidelines on taxation for the member states of the Federation and regulates its supply.
vi) It gives grants to member states of the federation and monitor their use
vii) It formulates policies governing internal security of the entire Federal Republic
viii) It medicates in inter-state disputes within the federation and monitor their use
ix) Established a federal aimed force
x) Passes laws needed to carry out Us power
xi) Admits new states
xii) Establish federal court
xiii) Establishes postal systems




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