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1. GIVE TWO factors which led to the migration and settlement of the Iteso into Kenya by 1800.
(i) Search for land/pasture/water for their herds
(ii) Family / clan fights/ internal conflicts
(iii) External attacks/ pressure
(iv) Increase in population
(v) Outbreak of diseases / epidemics
(vi) Natural calamities e.g. drought
(vii) Spirit of adventure
2. Identify TWO factors which encouraged the spread of Islam in Kenya by 1500.
(i) Commercial activities between the Arabs and Africans
(ii) Arab settlement along the coast.
(iii) Intermarriage between the Arabs and other communities.
(iv) Islam was more accommodative to African traditional practices
(v) Development of Kiswahili language.
3. State TWO main reasons why the Omani rules were interested in establishing their control over the Kenyan coast.
(i) To expand their commercial empire
(ii) To establish political control over the Kenyan coast
(iii) To assist in ending the Portuguese rule

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4. Give the main reason why the British were able to conquer Kenya during the 19th century.
(i) Military superiority of the British
5. State TWO season why Britain used the Imperial East Africa Company to administer her possessions.
(i) Absence of a clear policy on the administration of colonial possessions.
(ii) Lack of funds the colonies were not economically viable.
(iii) Lack of personnel.
(iv) I.B.E.A.C long experience in the region.

6. State TWO ways through which the construction of the Uganda

Railway contributed to the development of settler farming in Kenya.
i) Provided cheap and reliable transport network
ii) Opening up the Kenya Highlands to settlers.

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7. Give ONE reason why Africans were denied equal educational opportunities with other races during the colonial period.
i) Europeans aimed to produce and maintain a semi – skilled labour force for the colony.
ii) Fear of competition from educated Africans/ racial discrimination / claims for their rights.

8. State TWO main roles that Thomas J. Mboya played in the Kenya African Union.

i) He was Director of publicity in 1952 and exposed the KAU policies.
ii) He became treasurer of the party in 1953 and thereby mobilized financial support for K.A.U.
iii) He made KAU have a national outlook / revitalized KAU.

9. State two recommendations of the Lyttleton Constitution of 1954.
i) Creation of a multi-racial council of ministers.
ii) Electrons to be in 1956 -57 in 8 African constituencies.

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10. What was the main ideological difference between KANU and KADU before independence in 1963?

i) Where as KANU favoured a unitary type of government, KADU preferred federalism / majimboism.

11. State TWO ways through which the government controls parastatals.

i) Through appointment of top officials of the parastatals either by the Ministers or the president.
ii) Constant inspection of parastatals by the Inspectorate of state Corporations.
iii) Animal inspection and Auditing of Parastatal accounts by the controller and auditor general of corporations.
iv) The government requires that parastatals accounts by the Controller and auditor general of corporations.
v) Parastatals are created by an act of parliament.

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12. Identify TWO causes of division within opposition political party in Kenya since 1992.

i) Personality differences
ii) Conflicts over leadership / rivalry for power / control.
iii) Ethnic affiliations.
iv) Selfish motives
v) External interference
vi) Ideological differences.

13. Identify THREE situations which may lead to a by – election in Kenya.

i) Death of a member of parliament.
ii) Nullification of election results by a court of law / when one is declared bankrupt or insane.
iii) Imprisonment of a member of parliament.
iv) Resignation of a member of Parliament / M.P elected speaker of Parliament.
v) When a member resigns / defects from the party that elected him/ her to parliament.
vi) Failure to attend parliament for 8 consecutive sittings.

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14. Name the local government authority which is charged with administration of rural areas in Kenya.

i) County council.


15. a) Name the result of the migration and settlement of the Somali into Kenya by 1800.

i) The Somali people intermarried with the people they came into contact with such as the Pokomo and Borana / Intermarried with neighbours
ii) Their settlement in Kenya led to the expansion of trade in the region.
iii) Demand for agricultural produce by the Somali led to the expansion of trade in the region.
iv) Their settlement led to increased conflicts between communities over resources such as pasture and water.
v) Their migration and settlement led to take displacement and redistribution of people in area where they settled.
vi) Led to cultural exchange between the Somali and the people they came into contact with. For example the neighbouring communities and adopted Islam from the Somali.
vii) Assimilation of some communities they came into contact with e.g. Oromo.
viii) Their settlement in high agricultural potential areas e.g. river valleys encouraged some of them to practice crop farming.Any 4 points 2 marks each (7mks)

b) Describe the political organization of the Somali in Kenya during the Pre-colonial period.

i) The basic political unit of the Somali was the clan. Each clan had its name and occupied specific territories / areas.
ii) a council of elders was in charge of the day to day affairs of the clan e.g. making major clan decisions and settled disputes.
iii) The council maintained law and order and was the final court of appeal.
iv) The age – set system was an important institution among the Somali and all male members of the society belonged to the age – set. Each age –set performed specific roles/ duties.
v) The Somali had leaders called Sultan whose role was mainly advisory.
vi) There existed warriors whose main duty was to protect the community against external attacks and acquire possessions for the community.
vii) There existed people with special responsibility e.g. Sheikhs and medicine men. They were highly regarded in the community and their opinions were sought before important decisions were made. Any 4 points 2 marks each (8mks)

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16. a) Explain why Christian missionaries established mission stations in Kenya during the colonial period.

i) Mission stations were established by Christian missionaries to serve as centers for converting Africans.
(ii) To serve as centers where Africans would be taught basic literacy to enable them to read the bible.
(iii) To teach Africans new methods of carpentry, farming and masonry
(iv) To train African catechists who would in turn facilitate the spread of Christianity.
(v) To use them as centers for the spread of Western European culture
(vi) To serve as health centers where basic health care was provided to Africans.
(vii) To serve as settlements for freed slaves and other displaced peoples.
(viii) Serve as centers for the pacification of Africans/ centres to promote European colonization.
(ix) Serve as base where European missionaries could operate from.

(b) What factors undermined Christian missionaries activities in Kenya during the 19th century?

(i) Hostility by believers of traditional religion who saw missionaries as a threat to their beliefs and cultural practices.
(ii) Opposition by leaders of Islamic faith and other believers whose interests were to advance their religion in the region.
(iii) Harsh tropical climate coupled with tropical diseases e.g. malaria
(iv) Inadequate funds and supplies such as food.
(v) Inadequate personnel to carry out missionary activities
(vi) Rivalry among different Christian groups
(vii) Communication barrier/ lack of common language of communication to facilitate interaction with and conversion of Africans.
(viii) Strict Christian doctrines which were incompatible with traditional beliefs and practices.
(ix) Limited transport and communication facilities
(x) Vastness of areas covered by individual missionaries
(xi) Hostility from African rulers who often identified missionaries with colonialism and loss of their traditional authority.

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17. (a) Why did British become interested in establishing their control over Kenya during the second half of the 19th century.

(i) Britain wanted to gain access to Uganda so as to control the source of the Nile
(ii) In order to establish a market for her manufactured goods
(iii) To use Kenya as an outlet for surplus capital investment
(iv) To use Kenya as a source of raw materials for her industries
(v) To protect European missionaries and other British nationals who were already settled in Kenya and Uganda.
(vi) To prevent Kenya from being colonized by other European powers
(vii) To stop slave trade and introduce legitimate trade.
(viii) To control fertile highlands.(Any 6 points 1 mark each) (6 mks)

(b) Explain why some African communities restated the establishment of British rule in Kenya.

(i) Some communities had established strong social- political systems which they were not willing to allow foreigners to destroy.
(ii) Those communities which were military superior to their neighbours believed that no other race/ community could defeat them and thus resisted.
(iii) Some communities resisted because their socio- economic political set ups were strong enough to sustain resistance.
(iv) They wanted to protect their independence against foreign invaders
(v) Some of the communities were encouraged by their religious leaders to resist. Such leaders promised their people that they would receive supernatural protection against firearms
(vi) Most communities underestimated the military strength of the British
(vii) They were against the alienation of their land
(viii) They were opposed to the payment of taxes e.g. hut tax, poll tax/ Kipande system/ lack of political representation.
(ix) They were opposed to the government policy of de-stocking
(x) They were opposed to forced labour for European farms
(xi) Imposition of unpopular leaders by the British
(xii) Racial discrimination and organize of the British.(Any 9 points 1 mark each ( 9 mks)

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18. (a) What were the grievances of African Nationalists against the colonial government up to 1995?

(i) Land alienation
(ii) Forced labour
(iii) The Kipande system
(iv) Interference with African culture
(v) Racial Discrimination
(vi) Poor social service
(vii) Payment of taxes
(viii) Poor wages/ working conditions
(ix) Lack of political representation
(x) de- stocking
(xi) Harassment of colonial administrators.(Any 3 points 1 mk each (3 marks)

(b) Explain the political development which hastened the achievement of independence in Kenya between 1945 and 1963

(i) The return of ex- servicemen after the Second World War exposed the myth of white supremacy making Africans ready to fight them. They also acquired expertise which enabled them to organize their resistance.
(ii) Failure by the colonial government to reward the African ex- service men on return embittered them.
(iii) Change of government from conservative to labour party in Britain made her adopt sympathetic attitude towards the nationalists struggle in her colonies such as Kenya/ Lancaster House Conference.
(iv) The establishment of political parties by African nationalists e.g. KASU, KAU, Nairobi peoples Convention Party, KANU, KADU, APP enhanced mobilization of the masses against colonial rule.
(v) The Mau Mau uprising forced the British to realize the need of granting Kenya independence.
(vi) Nomination and election of Africans to the Legco enabled them to use the House as a forum to agitate for independence.
(vii) Emergence of trade union movement which helped to mobilize workers to fight for their rights.
(viii) Pan- African movement and other global bodies helped in the establishment of Afro- Asian people solidarity organization which supported the course of Africa nationalists in Kenya.
(ix) The return of Jomo Kenyatta from UK in 1946 strengthen the nationalistic movement in Kenya
(x) Independence of other countries e.g. Ghana and India inspired African nationalists in Kenya to fight for their independence (e.g. Nkrumah Nehru)
(xi) The formation of the UNO and the pressure exercised on the European powers to decolonize and super powers e.g. U.S.A, U.S.S.R
(xii) Role of African independent churches and schools.Any 6 points 2 mks each (12 mks)

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19. (a) Why are parliamentary elections held regularly in Kenya

(i) Parliamentary elections are held regularly in order to give the citizens the opportunity to exercise their constitutional right of participating in the democratic process.
(ii) To give citizens the chance to choose leaders whom they have confidence in
(iii) To enable the people to give mandate to the party of their choice to rule.
(iv) To inject new blood into parliament and government
(v) To enable sitting Mps to be responsive to the development needs of the electorate stipulated by the constitution.(Any 3 points 1 mk each (3 mks)

(b) Describe the stages through which a bill passes before it becomes law in Kenya

(i) Draft stage by the A.G
(ii) First reading – the bill presented to the National assembly by the mover No debate takes place during this stage.
(iii) Second Reading – the Bill is debated upon/ discussed by members. Amendments are incorporated into the bill.
(iv) Committee stage – the Bill is discussed in details and amendments are made
(v) Report Stage – chairperson of the committee reports the amended Bill to the whole house
(vi) Third – Final debate on the Bill and voting is carried out. If the bill is supported by the majority then it is passed to the next stage.
(vii) The bill is presented to the President for assent, it becomes an act of Parliament, it is gazetted and becomes law. Any 6 points 2 marks each ( 12 marks)

20. (a) Describe the structure of the democratic Party of Kenya ( DP)

(i) National delegates convention is the highest organ of the party and responsible for electing the officials of the party and amending the party constitution.
(ii) National governing Council is made up of all National Officials of the party and two representatives from each province ensuring that all party policies and programmes are implemented/ second highest party organ.
(ii) National Executive Committee consists of elected officials. They are charged with the day to day running of the party.
(iv) Branch Executive Committee/ organizations are organized on the basis of administrative districts. They are responsible for recruitment of members and popularizing the party at grass root level.
(v) Each branch is divided into sub – branches up to the village level
(vi) National secretariat Committee headed by the Executive Director that shall be responsible for implementing decisions and programmes of the party.
(vii) Party election committee
(viii) The Board of Trustees (Any 5 points 1 mk each (5 mks)

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(b) Explain the role of opposition parties in government and nation building

(i) Keep the government of the day on its toes by pointing out the shortcomings/ acts as the watchdog for the people.
(ii) Contribute to the process of law making and ensure that laws are in harmony with the constitution.
(iii) Educate the masses/ public about their rights/ gives education to the masses.
(iv) Mobilize people for participation in the political democratic process
(v) They offer alternative policies and programmes to those of the ruling party.
(vi) Ensure that public funds are properly utilized through Public Investments Committee or public Accounts Committee.
(vii) They check possible excesses by the government and the party in power.
(viii) They provide the basis for peaceful solution of conflicts(Any 5 points 2 mks each (10 mks)

21. (a) Describe the main provisions of the independence constitution of Kenya

(i) The independence constitution provided for a regional/ Majimbo government. Each region had a regional assembly and president.
(ii) A bicameral parliament consisting of the senate and House of representative/ upper and lower House.
(iii) The prime minister by the Government and the queen the head of State represented by the government.
(v) The Bill of rights which protected the individual interests. (Any 3 points 1 mk each (3 mks)

(b) Explain circumstances which may force the government to limit the and freedom of the individual

(i) One can be denied the right to life if one is convicted of murder in a court of law or caught in the act of robbery with violence.
(ii) If suspected to be planning to commit a crime one is denied their personal liberty/ freedom of movement.
(iii) One can be denied freedom to own property if the government wishes to development public utilities in the area but compensation must be paid.
(iv) One’s freedom of worship can be limited if one uses it to undermine the government or create disunity.
(v) One’s freedom of assembly can be limited if it poses a threat to the state.
(vi) One’s freedom of speech may be limited if one publishes false accusations about another person or the state or incite people against the government.
(vii) One’s freedom of movement can be limited if internal security is threatened.
(viii) If one is not of sound mind one can be taken to a mental hospital by the police for confinement and treatment.
(ix) If one has an infectious disease can be denied one’s personal liberty.
(x) If one has not attained the stage of maturity one is considered a minor and their decisions are made on their behalf by adult members of society.(Any 6 points 2 marks each (12 mks)

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