The early contacts were initially at the coast but later spread inland. The early visitors included the Arabs, Greeks, Chinese, Persians, Portuguese, British, French and the Dutch.


The East African coast

The existing documentaries and archaeological evidence about the historical information on the east African coast include;

~  The Graeco- Roman Documentary which only makes indirect references to the east African coast.

~  The Swahili chronicles written by the people of the coast. E.g the Kilwa chronicle gives account of achievements of coastal rulers before the arrival of the Portuguese.

~  The writings of Pliny, a Roman Geographer who wrote about the high cost of trade with India in his book, The Natural History.

~  Periplus of the Erythrean Sea; by a Greek merchant in 1st C AD describes the people and places along the coast and the Indian Ocean Trade. (Erythrean Sea Trade).

~  Geopgraphia by Claudius Ptolemy makes reference to east African coast and the trade along Somalia and Kenyan coasts.

~  Christian Topography of Cosmos Indico of the 6TH C describes the trading activities on the coast of East Africa.

~  Renowned travelers like Al-Mosudi, Al Idrisi and Ibn Battuta wrote firsthand accounts about the places they visited and the people they met at the coast in the 10th C AD.

~  The existing archaeological evidence in east Africa include the remains of pottery , iron tools, beads and coins which prove the presence of international trade.

Early visitors to the east African coast upto 1500.

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Due to the great accessibility of the east African coast, there was widespread interaction between it and the people from the outside world. This was also aided by the monsoon winds that blew vessels / ships to the coast between November and April and took them away between may and October. The earliest visitors were the Egyptians, Phoenicians and Indonesians.Others who came later on included the Greeks, Persians, Romans, Chinese, Arabs, Syrians, Indians and the Portuguese.

The Greeks

Their coming to east Africa is accounted for by the quarrels between the Seleucid rulers in Greece and the Ptolemaic Greeks in Egypt over control of the land route to the east through the Mediterranean lands.The rising demand for ivory made the ptolemies venture into the red sea and finally into the east African coast. Evidence of Greek existence on the coast is the Ptolemic Gold Coin found near Dar es Salam.


In AD 45, Hippalus, a Roman sailor using monsoon wind knowledge reached the red sea and entered the Indian Ocean. The Romans were keen on breaking the Arab monopoly over trade.Evidence of trade between the Romans and the coast is in the writing of a Roman Historian Pliny (23-79AD) who points out the high coast of trade between India, Arabia and china.The fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th c AD affected international trading network in the Roman Empire.

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They were mainly immigrants from Shirazi on the eastern shore of the Persian Gulf. Their adventure into the east African coast happened during the reign of the Sassanid Dynasty(224-636AD), which was determined to rebuild the Persian Empire that had been destroyed by the Macedonian Greeks, through wealth amassed from international trade.

By the 6th c, the Persians were trading in India and later china, controlling the red sea and parts of Egypt and Arabia.They got involved in the east African trade and even established ruling dynasties9 e.g. the (Shirazi Dynasty) at the coast. They intermarried with the locals and introduced Islamic religion.They were later overthrown by the Arabs. The succeeded in introducing Bowls of glass, swords, beakers and pots to the coast.


They visited the coast in the middle ages. This is evidenced in the work of the Chinese authors during the Sung Dynasty (960- 1279 AD) and Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), who referred to the east African coast as Tseng- Pat or Pseng- Po.There has also been evidence of Chinese coins dating to 700 AD at the coast.The last Chinese fleet must have reached Mogadishu in 1430AD. The Chinese brought in Silk cloth, porcelain bowls and plates in exchange for Gold\, leopard skin, Rhino Horns and tortoise shells. Porcelain remains have been found at the coast.


The earliest Arab settlers to arrive were the Daybui from Daybul In north western India. They arrived along the east African coast by AD 650 for trade. The earliest Arab settlement was Qanbalu (Pemba). They later settled in manda, Kilwa. Lamu and Mombasa.The Arabs reffered to the Africans as the Zenj (Blacks)

Factors that facilitated the coming of Arabs to the east African coast.

~  The Indian ocean provided the highway through which the traders traveled

~  The traders had the skills of harnessing the monsoon winds (trade winds) they knew what times of the year to come to the coast and what times to go back.

~  The traders had marine technology e.g. they had ship-building technology and knew how to use the compass for navigation of the ocean

~  They ensured the control of the red sea was in their hands to bar the enemy from attacking them

~  The ports of southern Arabia were good calling places on their journey between the east and the west.

~  The deep harbours at the coast were ideal for their ships to anchor, refuel and get supplies.

Reasons for the coming of the Arabs

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~  They wanted to trade and control the commercial activities along the east African coast.

~  Some Arabs came as refugees, fleeing from religious and political persecutions in Arabia.

~  They came to spread their religion, Islam.

~  Some came as explorers to explore the east African coast.

~  Some came to establish settlements along the east African coast.

Trade between the East African coast and the outside world

There is sufficient evidence of the existence of regular trading contacts between east African coast and the countries in the Middle East and Far East.

Development and organization of the trade

~  The earliest foreign traders must have been the Romans who traded with the Indians in the Far East. They made stopovers at the east African coast for ivory whose demand had grown tremendously.

~  Muslim Arabs acted as intermediaries in the Indian Ocean trade between the Indians and the Romans. They also exported frankincense and myrrh among other things.

~  Traders from Persia, Arabia and Syria brought glass beakers and bowls, swords, pots, grains, sugar, cloth and beads in exchange for palm oil, tortoise shells, ivory and slaves.

~  The Greek, roman and Chinese traders brought porcelain bowls, daggers, swords, pottery, cowrie shells, glassware, beads and silk in exchange for ivory, rhinoceros horns, bee wax, tortoise shells , coconut oil and mangrove poles. Cowrie shells were obtained from Maldives islands while spices came from Spice Island.

~  East Africa also exported leopard skins, gold, ostrich feathers, copal, copper and iron. Ivory was used in Asia to make bangles, bracelets, piano keys and for decorations

~  The traders relied on the monsoon winds to blow their ships to and from the east African coast.

~  The Indian Ocean trade was conducted through the barter system but later coins were used as a medium of exchange. During barter, the foreigners bartered their goods with gold, ivory and slaves. Seyyid said later introduced copper and silver coins.

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~  The middlemen in the trade included the Arabs and Swahili who organized caravans to the interior to acquire local goods which they sold to traders at the coast.

~  As there was no common language spoken, trading was conducted silently, hence the name ‘silent trade’

~  Capital for the trade was provided by the Arabs. Later the Indian banyans started giving credit facilities to the traders which increased the volume of trade.

~  The sultan of Zanzibar provided security to the Arab traders, enabling them to penetrate the interior to acquire goods.

~  The trade stimulated development of towns along the coastline. E.g Rhapta (probably located between pangani and Dar es Salam), Essina and Sarapion were the earliest towns to grow. Lamu Malindi Mombasa, pate and Brava also developed.

~  The merchants settled at various places on the coast and on the islands and interacted with the locals leading to development of the Swahili culture.

Factors which promoted the Indian Ocean trade.

(a)  Availability of items of trade from the east African coast and foreigner countries. For example, ivory, slaves, cotton and porcelain.

(b)  The high demand for trade items from the coast by consumers from the outside world was also a promoting factor. This was caused by the uneven distribution of resources. Foreign items were also on demand at the coat.

(c)  The existence of enterprising merchants in both the foreign lands and the east African coast led to promotion of trade links. The Akamba, Mijikenda, nyamwezi and Swahili middlemen for example played a pivoted role in the trade.

(d)  The existence of local trade among Africans which acted as a base upon which the Indian Ocean trade was developed.

(e)  The accessibility of the east African coast by sea. This enabled the foreigner traders to reach the region across the Indian Ocean.

(f)  The existence of the monsoon winds facilitated the movement of the vessels which made it possible for the traders to travel to and from the coasty.

(g)  The existence of peace and political stability at the east African coast created a conducive atmosphere for business transactions. Where there was need, the traders were given security by the sultan of Zanzibar.

(h)  The existence of natural harbours along the coast ensured safe docking of the trade vessels for fueling and off-loading.

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(i)  The advancement in the ship building technology in Europe gave great advantage to the traders. This made water transport reliable and regular.

(j)  The existence o the Indian Banyans (money lenders) who gave credit facilities enabled many more people to join the trade.

Impacts of the trade on the peoples of east Africa

(a)  The trade led to intermarriage between Muslim traders with the local Bantu communities giving rise to the Swahili people with a distinct culture.

(b)  There was emergence of Kiswahili as a new language of the coastal people. The language is a mixture of Bantu and Arabic languages.

(c)  The trade led to the spread of the Islamic culture along the coastal region. Stone buildings were constructed, new dressing styles arose (women began to wear buibui while men wore kanzus), new eating habits also evolved.

(d)  The Islamic law, sharia was also introduced.

(e)  Many Africans were converted to Islam. However the religion did not spread beyond the coastal region prior to the 19th c.

(f)  New crops were introduced along the coast. For example, rice, wheat, millet, cloves, vegetables and fruits such as bananas and oranges. Cloth, cowrie shells and spices were also introduced.

(g)  Profits derived from the trade were used to develop towns like Pemba, Mombasa, Lamu, Zanzibar and Kilwa.

(h)  The trade led to the rise of a class of rich merchants exhibiting a high standard of living. African merchants who rose to prominence included chief Kivoi among the Akamba, Ngonyo of the Giriama, Mwakikonga of the Digo, Nyungu ya mawe, Mirambo and Msiri of the Nyamwezi.

(i)  There was decline of the local industries like weaving and iron working which were affected by the influx of foreign goods like cloth fro India and iron tools from Asia and Europe.

(j)  There was destruction of wildlife, especially elephant and rhinoceros due to the increased demand for ivory.

(k)  The increased demand for slaves promoted warfare among the communities as many people were captured during slave raids. It also created fear while others lost their life during the warfare.

(l)  Slave trade also disrupted African economies as able bodied men were captured leaving behind the aged, weak, and children who made little contribution. Many even died of starvation since they could not participate in food production.

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(m)  African population in the hinterland greatly reduced as many were sold into slavery.

(n)  Money (currency) was introduced as a means of exchange to replace the barter system of trade.

(o)  East African coast was exposed to the outside world through trade. This paved way for European imperialism later on.

(p)  Trade routes led to the establishment of trade caravan routes which later were upgraded to by the colonialists.

The coming of the Portuguese

Since the 10th century Arabian influence along the coast had been strong. Most of the port towns along the East African coast had been built by Arab Sultans, who brought the Muslim religion to the coastal people.The Portuguese explorer and soldier, Vasco da Gama, was the first European to make contact with the people of the East African Coast. He had been paid by the King of Portugal to find a sea route to India.

The Portuguese at the East African coast 1500 – 1700 A.D

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to have contacts with the people of the East African Coast. They invaded the east African coast in 1498 at a time when the Ottoman Empire occupied most of the Middle East thus blocking the overland route to India from Europe.They were adventurous and in search for the sea route to India. This led them to the East African Coast where they stayed for 200 years.

Reasons for the coming of the Portuguese at the East African coast

a) The need to establish a commercial empire in order to get the products of East Africa e.g. ivory, gold, silks and spices that were mainly controlled by the Arabs merchants.

b) They wanted to obtain control of the main trading towns, e.g. Kilwa, Mombasa etc.

c) They wanted to defeat the Muslim traders and rulers who had monopolized the Indian Ocean trade.

d) They wanted to prevent other European rivals from gaining access to the Indian Ocean Trade e.g. the French, Dutch, and British

e) Desire to get revenue for the development of their country.

f) The Portuguese wished to share in the profits of the Indian Ocean Trade by imposing taxes and forcing wealthy coastal towns to pay tribute to the king of Portugal.

g) The coast had natural harbors where ships could anchor on their way to and from the East for fresh food and water. The Portuguese therefore wanted to establish a calling station for resting, refresh, treating the sick, repairing wrecked ships e.t.c

h) The coast was strategically located and this made it easy to control sea pirates and other rival powers.

i) They wanted to revenge on the Muslim Arabs who had conquered Portugal in 711 AD by converting them to Christianity and stop the spread of Islam i.e. the Arabs had ever run the Iberian Peninsula and forced the Christians to accept Islam.

j) They hoped to get assistance of King Prester John thought to be in the interior of north –east Africa. They hoped the king would help them in their crusade against the Muslims.

k) They had hope of stopping Egyptians and Turks from sending military aid to their fellow Moslems on the coast.

l) They were interested in exploration and adventure; this was a period of Renaissance (means to be born again/change) in Europe. Hence hoped to search for the unknown, new knowledge and sailing across un mapped seas.

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m) Desire to acquire revenue for the development of their country.

Portuguese conquest of the coast 1500-1510 (Stages of conquest) Steps taken by the Portuguese to occupy the East African coast.

~  In 1497 King John 11 sent Padro da Covillha on a land journey  to India to gather information about the Eastern trades and the sea routes.

~  In 1498 Bathromew Diaz sailed around the Cape of Good Hope, thus proving that there was a way round South Africa to the Indian Ocean.

~  Between 1497- 1499 Vasco da Gama at the command of King Emmanuel the fortunate of Portugal visited Mozambique, Mombasa and Malindi on his way to India.  He arrived in Malindi in March 1498 to a warm welcome by the locals.

~  He returned to Portugal in 1499 and gave a report of the flourishing Sofala trade, the Deep Harbour in Mombasa and the existing disunity of coastal people.

~  In response to Vasco da Gama’s expeditions, the king of Portugal sent fleets of ships to conquer the important trading towns of the East African coast.

~  In 1500 Pedro Alvares Cabral attempted to capture Sofala with its Gold trade but he failed.

~  In 1502 Vasco da Gama came back with 19 ships aiming at capturing Kilwa because it was the most important and prosperous. He captured the palace, imprisoned the Su ltan and only released him when he accepted to pay tribute to Portugal.

~  From Kilwa he invaded Mombasa, which tried to get assistance from Malindi but since they were great rivals Malindi refused to give assistance, this disunity made the work of conquest easy.

~  In 1503 Ruy Laurence Ravasco was sent with a number of ships and forced the islands of Mafia and Zanzibar and other towns to pay tribute to Portugal.

~  In 1504, Lopez destroyed gold trade at Kilwa. Attacks were too much on the harbour that trade came to a standstill. But again the Arabs failed to unite to fight the Portuguese.

~  In 1505 Francisco D’Almeida arrived at the coast on his way to Gao where he had been appointed the first Portuguese viceroy (governor) of the Eastern Empire.  With 1500 men and 20 ships, he attacked Sofala which surrendered without struggle because she was tired of Kilwa’s rule and therefore preferred the Portuguese to fellow Arabs.  His forces continued northwards and attacked Kilwa. The Sultan and his followers took off to the bush while the Portuguese looted and burnt down the town before he departed to India. He also conquered Mombasa.

~  In 1506 – 1507 Tristao Da Cunha took on the Northern towns of Socotra, Oja, Brava and Lamu. Towns that submitted without struggles were only asked to pay tribute to Portugal. Malindi was even excused from paying tribute due to her friendship with the Portuguese.

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~  In 1509 Alba quiqui captured the remaining towns i.e. the work of conquest was completed with taking the islands of Pemba, Mafia, and Zanzibar.  Mombasa was burnt down.

~  By 1515 the Portuguese had succeeded in conquering most of the coastal towns, bring them under Portuguese rule. However towns like Gedi, Kilifi, Pate, Manda, Mombasa and Lamu continued with resistance. Mombasa was heavily attacked in 1528.

~  In 1585, a Turkish captain, Amir Ali Bey, arrived at the coast as an envoy of the sultan of turkey to free the coastal towns from the Portuguese. Rebellion then broke out between 1585 and 1588 between Ali Bey, the Portuguese, and the people of Mombasa and Zimba warriors. The towns of pate, Siyu and Pemba were attacked and forced to pay heavy fines while manda was completely destroyed.

~  Portugal finally brought all the coastal towns under her control establishing her

headquarters in Mombasa that had been subdued in 1589. in 1593, the Portuguese built fort Jesus

Why the Portuguese build Fort Jesus

a) They used it as a watch tower

b) To hide against attacks by the enemies

c) As military base

d) To offer food security and protection.

e) To act as an armament.

f) To act as a prison for the captives.

~  Portuguese control of the east African coast as greatly supported by the conquest of Hormuz, which made it easier for them to control sea traffic in the Persian Gulf, Gulf of Eden and Arabian Sea.

Why the Portuguese defeated the East African Coastal towns/Why the Portuguese were successful

a) They had superior weapons e.g. cannon guns which made terrible noise and threw people in panic as compared to the poor musket guns of the coastal Arabs.

b) They had well trained soldiers with superior skills of fighting compared to the coastal people who had no permanent organized army e.g. Vasco da Gama, Francisco D’Almeida were ruthless army commanders which helped them to defeat the coastal dwellers.

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c) They had better and faster ships (carracks) well equipped for naval warfare. The Portuguese soldiers wore Armour on their bodies and helmets on their heads, which protected them from the weapons of the coastal people.

d) The coastal towns were disunited which gave chance to the Portuguese to fight isolated enemies e.g. Malindi refused to unite with Mombasa due to local conflicts. Some cooperated with the invaders giving them food and bases e.g. Malindi and Sofala.

e) Some coastal towns like Kilwa were caught unaware. The Portuguese employed cruel methods of fighting like burning down towns and surprise attacks.

f) The ships acted as stages against the hostile weapons of the coastal people.

g) The coast had natural harbours and was not open to attacks.

h) The constant attacks on the coastal towns by the Galla, Zimba and Turkish e.t.c had weakened their defence.

i) The Portuguese were financially equipped and therefore supported their soldiers because they wanted to control the East African trade.

j) The coastal states had very weak economies that could not sustain prolonged fights especially against the economically strong Portuguese.

Portuguese Administration at the coast

By 1510, the conquest of the East African coast was over and administration fell into the hands of the Portuguese. For easy administration, the coast was divided into two zones;

  1. The area North of Cape Delgado was ruled by the Captain at Malindi.
  2. The area South of Cape Delgado was ruled by Captain at Mozambique.

Both captains were answerable to the Portuguese viceroy at Goa on Indian coast at the General headquarters. Cape Delgado was made the midpoint of the East Africa possession. Sofala was made the regional headquarters but still under the charge of the captain who took his orders from the viceroy at Goa. Later, the Captain in the North was stationed at Mombasa after the construction of Fort Jesus in 1593 because they were rebellious.  Other forts and garrisons were established at Sofala and Kilwa.

The Portuguese captains were responsible for the collections of tributes from coastal rulers.

They imposed the customs dues on all imports and exports.  They were also responsible for the suppression of rebellions on the coast.  The Portuguese had problems with administration because they could not provide enough troops to all garrisons their strongholds.The Portuguese were more interested in gold trade in Sofala. Unfortunately, they failed to develop this trade because of the following;

~  There were wars in the mining areas between the Portuguese and Coastal people.

~  As a result the Portuguese were so cruel that any sign of disobedience was punished with maximum brutality to serve as a warning to others who might choose to rebel. This partly explains the unpopularity of the Portuguese on the coast. The Portuguese also applied the policy of divide and rule by setting one town against the other. For example Malindi against Mombasa.The relationship with the subjects was not good. They lived in isolation of each other by race and religion. The Portuguese established their own settlements, built their own churches and had their own priest. This could be the reason why their religion was rejected and hatred increased.In addition, the few Portuguese officials were corrupt, plundered and ordered destruction on the coastal town. All this earned them hatred and opposition from the people and it was not a surprise that they were nicknamed “AFRITI” meaning Devil.The Portuguese did not mix freely with Africans because they considered themselves to be a special race.During the Portuguese reign, the glory of the coastal states was no more. The high standards of living the coastal people had enjoyed were no more. The trade that had made them rich was declining.  Many buildings were in ruins and there was widespread poverty and misery.

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Reasons that led to the decline of the Portuguese at the East African Coast

(Problems/challenges they faced)

a) Portugal was a small country that could not provide enough administrators and officials for such a large coastline that extended from Sofala in the south to Mogadishu in the north.The territory was too big and long for effective control and administration.

b) It had few soldiers and could not keep fortified garrison along the coast.

c) Authority was left in hands of incompetent and corrupt officials who were after enriching themselves.

d) The Africans hated the Portuguese due to differences in religion, that is to say, Muslims against Christians (Portuguese).

e) The Portuguese were cruel, harsh and brutal, they always punished the coastal people whenever they attempted to rebel and made them to be hated.

f) The Portuguese also used divide and rule policy for example, they allied with Malindi against Mombasa.

g) There was decline of trade due high taxes on imports and other restrictions hence smuggling of goods, which affected the Portuguese economy. Due to decline in trade, the people became poor and dissatisfied and they continuously rebelled.

h) The Portuguese failed to support their own allies at the coast, some even betrayed them.

i) Portugal had been forced into a union with Spain between1580–1640 which weakened her control of the trading colonies as she was no longer interested in the overseas empire.

j) Portugal was challenged by other European powers, which began competing with the Portuguese in the Indian Ocean Trade e.g. Dutch, English, French, Turks and others.

k) The coastal people found useful allies against the Portuguese due to their bad rule e.g. Turks, Oman, and Arabs

l) They were faced with constant rebellions along the coast. This greatly disrupted life at the coast e.g. Pate, Mombasa

m) Tropical diseases which claimed their life like smallpox, malaria making it difficult for them to administer the coast effectively.

n) The Portuguese were greatly weakened by a group of cannibals the Zimba, who attacked the East African coast.

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o) The unhealthy climate made the area unattractive for them to work for instance, some places where too humid and hot while others were too cold.

p) The distance between Portugal and the East African coast was too far hence reinforcement delayed.

q) There was a problem of communication barrier, the Portuguese refused to learn the African languages and these made their administration difficult.

r) The income obtained from the gold trade was not enough to pay for administration i.e. soldiers and officials.

s) The Capture of Fort Jesus their stronghold in 1698 by the Omani greatly contributed to their decline.

The collapse of Portuguese rule

~  In 1585, a Turkish captain, Amir Ali Bey, arrived at the coast as an envoy of the sultan of turkey to free the coastal towns from the Portuguese. Rebellion then broke out between 1585 and 1588 between Ali Bey, the Portuguese, and the people of Mombasa and Zimba warriors. The towns of pate, Siyu and Pemba were attacked and forced to pay heavy fines while manda was completely destroyed

~  As a result of their ruthlessness, the coastal people became hostile to the Portuguese.

~  Mombasa for example resisted the humiliation they got from the Portuguese appointedsultan

~  The sultan’s heir Yusuf was treated as a servant who resented the people of Mombasa

~  On 15thaugust 1631, during the Christian feast of Assumption in Mombasa, Sultan Yusuf stabbed the captain with a knife, killing him instantly. This sparked off a rebellion where many Portuguese were killed.

~  Yusuf posed a threat to the Portuguese rule until his death in 1637.

~  The people of pate also revolted in 1666. However, their ruler was arrested and exiled to Goa where he was executed

~  In 1622, the Persians drove the Portuguese from Hormuz. In 1650, the Portuguese were expelled from their bases in Muscat by the Omani Arabs under sultan Saif

~  Britain, France and Holland also began to compete the Portuguese in trade.

~  The final blow to Portuguese rule was attack by the Omani Arabs and the seizure of fort Jesus. The coastal Arab towns had appealed to their brothers in Oman for assistance against the Portuguese brutality.

~  In 1652, an Oman fleet sailed to pate and Zanzib ar, overpowered and killed the Portuguese.

~  In 1696, Imam Saif Ibn Sultan of Oman sailed to Mombasa with a large fleet and army. The Portuguese took refuge in Fort Jesus as battle raged on (about 2500 Portuguese men, women and children) the Portuguese were unfortunate as they could not get supplies to sustain the war with 3000 plus Arab soldiers with full packing of the coastal people.

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~  In 1697, the Omani forces got access to the Fort and found most Portuguese afflicted with

disease. By December 1698, the Omanis penetrated the Fort only to find all except twelve Portuguese dead. This marked the end of Portuguese rule though they made a temporaryseizure of the fort in 1728 but were overpowered.

~  For the coastal people, it was however a mere change of guard from the Portuguese to the Arabs.

Results of Portuguese stay at the coast of East Africa


a) The Portuguese built Fort Jesus at the coast in Mombasa in1592/3 which became a fortress and later a tourist attraction for centuries.

b) They enriched the Swahili language with an addition of 60 words e.g. emeza meaning table and pesa meaning money.

c) They introduced new crops from South Africa of which many have become staple diet for many East Africans e.g. cassava, pawpaws, maize, oranges, sweet potatoes, guavas, pineapples and mangoes

d) They made an improvement in ship building. During their stay on the coast, many architects came in from India and Europe.

e) There was establishment of closer trading links between the coast and India.

f) They introduced new farming methods for example they encouraged the use of cow dung as manure.

g) They led to the coming of more European and Asian traders and craftsmen especially those who helped in the building of Fort Jesus.

h) They broke the Muslim- Arab monopoly of the Indian Ocean Trade.

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a) Trade declined due to the constant wars and rebellions and heavy taxes imposed.

b) There was decline of the coastal towns because many were burnt down and left in ruins for example Kilwa and Mombasa.

c) There was widespread poverty and misery among the coastal people due to decline in trade.

d) There was heavy loss of lives during the attacks. There was depopulation due to the many wars in the areas

e) There was destruction of property like buildings and crops, which led to famine and starvation.

f) The coastal people suffered oppression and brutality under harsh rule of the Portuguese.

g) subjects and stagnation of the Islamic faith because discouraged preaching.

h) Smuggling developed because the Portuguese had failed to establish proper trading links with the Interior.

i) Some towns were prevented from trading with their initial partners which led to their decay e.g. Gedi

j) They led to the European interest at the coast hence leading to the colonization in the 19th Century.






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