Wednesday, June 12, 2024







Become a member

Get the best offers and updates relating to Liberty Case News.

― Advertisement ―



SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND:A.SULPHUR (S) Sulphur is an element in Group VI(Group 16)of the Periodic table . It has atomic number 16...







 Publishing is the process of producing publications such as newspapers, cards, pamphlets, pictures, calendars, books, etc that has special text and graphical layouts & designs.

Traditionally, publishing involved drawing and writing manually on wooden or metallic boards.  The artwork would then be painted with ink and pressed on papers to produce a printout.  Today, the art of publishing makes use of Personal computers & small printers that are able to print high-quality text and graphics.  All the publishing processes can be done on a desk in the office or at home.

  • Definition of Desktop Publishing

Desktop publishing refers to the process of producing publications by designing their text and graphics layout using special desktop publishing software installed on personal computers.  The text and graphical objects can then be inserted, edited, formatted and printed.

Examples of desktop publishers;

  • Adobe PageMaker
  • Adobe Photoshop – mainly used for editing & formatting photographs.
  • Adobe illustrator – used for creating complex freehand artwork such as drawings & logos.
  • Microsoft Publisher.
  • Ventura.
  • Harvard graphic.

Difference between a desktop publisher and a word processor.

  • A DTP software gives the user more tools and control of the page layout, text manipulation and graphic design than a word processor.

However, today’s word processors have been incorporated with text and graphic formatting and editing tools, e.g., you can design a full publication in Microsoft Word by using the available Drawing and Picture tools, create columns, etc.


  • Purpose of Desktop publishing software

DTP programs give the typesetter (the person designing publications) a lot of control on:

  • Graphic design:

Using DTP software, a typesetter can create and edit very complex text & graphical objects of high quality.

For example, the software provides the user with rulers & ruler guides that can be used to place an object in the correct position within the publication.

  • Page layout design:

With a desktop publisher, the user can design a page layout by setting consistent (constant) picture and object locations, divide a page into a number of columns, and also create layers.

Layering is the arrangement of objects on top of each other with the one on top being on the first layer.


  • Printing:

To produce any publications, they must be printed.  Therefore, DTP software helps the user to prepare artwork (i.e., publications that are ready for printing).

  • Types of Desktop publishing software

There are 2 main types of DTP software:

  • Graphical based:

They are specifically developed for editing & formatting graphic objects like pictures.


  • Adobe Photoshop. – Harvard graphic.

Graphic-based desktop publishers have superior capabilities for handling images such as setting resolution, brightness, contrast, cropping, and filling the images with colour.

  • Layout based:

They are specifically developed to create different page layout designs for text and pictures.


  • Adobe PageMaker.
  • Microsoft Publisher.
  • Designing a publication

Different publications have different design layouts and formatting.

Types of publications

There are several types of publications that can be produced using DTP software.  They include:

  • Cards:

They may be for special occasions such as weddings, graduations, harambee, and for congratulations.

  • Certificates:

These are types of publications used to show completion of courses and special events.

Note.  Certificates are very sensitive, and must be designed to discourage any type of duplication or counterfeits.

  • Newspapers, Magazines, Pamphlets and Newsletters:

They contain news targeting a group of people.

  • Books:

Are bulky publications with many pages that are bound together.

  • Calendars:

They are used to show dates.  They are also used by companies to advertise their products.

  • Notices, Brochures, Posters / Advertisement, and Catalogues.
  • Features of DTP software.
  • Text can be entered directly into a DTP publication. Alternatively, the text can be entered into a Word processor and then copied into the DTP document.
  • Graphics can be created in a separate program, then incorporated into a Desktop publishing program.
  • A Scanner can also be used to copy images, such as photographs and drawings, into a Desktop publishing document. A Scanner is a device that reads text and images into a document.
  • A DTP program gives you more control over the graphics in a publication. You can:
  • move – change the position of a graphic on a page,
  • size – make a graphic larger or smaller,
  • Rotate – turn or spin a graphic, and
  • Crop – trim part of a graphic.
  • Has a wide range of Fonts & print sizes that can be merged with useful symbols, such as arrows and stars.
  • Has Columns of various widths, in which the text is fitted automatically using sensible hyphenation. The columns can also be reorganization automatically.
  • Enables Scaling and cropping of publications so as to fit the available space.
  • Page numbers can be inserted.
  • Enables production of multiple page documents.


Steps in using a DTP System.

  1. Prepare your text and illustrations with a Word processor or a Graphics package.

Alternatively, use a Scanner to input text and graphics from other sources.

  1. Using the DTP program, develop the format of each page.

Your screen becomes an electronic paste board with rulers, column guides and other page design aids.

  1. Copy the text and illustrations into the page format you have designed in the DTP program.

The DTP program will automatically move the excess text to another column or page and also help size and place illustrations and headings.

  1. Format the pages on the screen to look the way you want them, then store them electronically on your hard disk. If necessary, print them on a Laser Printer to produce the finished printed material.

Printing terminologies used in DTP.

  • Ranner – the main headline across the top of the page.
  • Cross head – a small heading used to break up text into easily readable sections.
  • Bullet – solid dot printed before pieces of text in order to add an emphasis.
  • Cast off – a calculation as to how much space the text will use on a page.
  • Footer – a line of text at the bottom of each page giving the publications title, author’s name, etc.
  • Masthead – details of the person involved in printing the publication.
  • WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) – this means that, the presentation on the screen is exactly what you will get from the Printer.
  • Jigging – moving text around by means of DTP software.

Review Questions.

  1. (a). What is Desktop publishing?

(b). Why is a desktop publisher preferred in designing documents than a word processor?

  1. Give three examples of desktop publishing software available in the market today.
  2. (a). What is layering?

(b). Why is layering a very useful feature in a desktop publisher.

  1. Mention the three main purposes of a desktop publishing software.
  2. List TWO areas of DTP application.
  3. State FIVE features of a Desktop publisher.


Getting Started with Microsoft Publisher 2003

Fig.A.1 below shows an illustration of Publisher 2003 application window.

Starting Publisher 2003

  1. From the start menu, point to programs, Microsoft office, and then click Microsoft office


  1. Choose design templates or click New to design from scratch.
  2. On file menu, click Page setup, select publication type and orientation.
  3. On Arrange menu, click Layout Guides, Set margins and other properties.
  4. Click OK button.

Setting up a Publication

To set up a Publication in Publisher:

  1. On view menu, click master page.
  2. Use the edit Master pages tool bar (A.2) to design a master page.
  3. Click close master view to switch back to foreground pages.

Fig.A.2: Master pages in publisher

Working with text and graphical objects

To add text using text frame tool in publisher:

  1. Click tool marked A on the tool box.
  2. on an empty area on the pasteboard or printable area, drag to define the text block.
  3. Type the text.

Resizing and moving text objects

Text may not fit in the defined text frame. Publisher displays A… below the text frame.

To resize the text block in PageMaker or publisher:

  1. Click the text block using the pointer tool.
  2. Position the pointer on the selection handle and drag to resize.

To move the text blocks in Publisher:

  1. Click the text block using the pointer tool.
  2. Position the pointer tool on the object and hold down the left mouse button.
  3. Drag the object to a new position.

Importing text from a Word Processor

Other than typing you can also import text from a word processor file.

To Import text in Publisher:

  1. On the File menu, click Import Word Document.
  2. In the dialogue box of figure A.3, select the file then click ok.
  3. The text is pasted onto the printable area.

Fig. A.3: Import a word Processor Document.

Inserting Graphical objects

You can import pictures and other graphical objects into a publisher document by linking or embedding.

To import an object in publisher:

  1. on the insert menu, point to picture, click from file.
  2. In the insert picture dialogue box, select the drive or folder where the file is located,

Click   Insert.

  1. Click the file then insert.

To embed or link an object in publisher:

  1. On the Edit menu, click insert object.
  2. In the dialog box displayed, clicks create from file.
  3. Click the Browse button to select the file you want to link or embed.
  4. To create a link, make sure that the link checkbox is checked.
  5. Click ok

Editing text and graphical objects

Editing text in publication

Deleting text and text objects

You may want to delete some text or entire text object

To delete text in publisher

  1. Click the text tool and highlight text.
  2. Press Delete or Back space key.

Copying and moving a block of text

To copy or move a block of text in publisher:

  1. Select the block of text
  2. On the edit menu, click copy or cut
  3. Click where you want to paste the text.
  4. From Edit menu, click paste.

Checking for spelling

To spell check a publication in publisher:

  1. On the tools menu, Point to spelling, then click spelling
  2. In the check spelling dialog box (Figure A.4), mark check all stories.
  3. Replace or Ignore the misspelled words.
  4. Click OK to close spelling check complete message box.


Find and replace

To search for word or phrase in publisher:

  1. On the Edit menu, click Replace to display dialog box of figure A.5
  2. In the Find What box, type the word(s) to be searched
  3. In the Replace with box to type the word(s) to replace the found word(s)
  4. Click Find next or Replace/Replace all button.

Editing a publication Layout

To edit a publication Layout in PageMaker or publisher

  1. Switch to the master pages
  2. Make the necessary changes, and then switch back to foreground pages

Editing Graphical objects

Graphical objects are clip arts and pictures. You edit object attributes such as size, position, colour and brightness.

To edit object attributes in publisher:

  1. Select the object.
  2. Display picture toolbar
  3. Adjust the required attributes.

Formatting a publication

Formatting refers to applying special effects or attributes to the layout, text and graphical objects.

Text Formatting

To format text in publisher:

  1. Highlight the text to format.
  2. On the formatting toolbar (Figure A.6), Choose font style, size and other attributes.

Superscript and subscript

To format text to superscript or subscript:

  1. Highlight the text.
  2. On the Format menu, mark the superscript or subscript.
  3. In the dialog box (figure A.7) click superscript or subscript, and then click ok.

Paragraph and page formatting

Paragraph formatting involves aligning text, identing, adding column guides, inserting headers and footers.

Inserting column guides

By default, a page is made up of one column.

To create more than one column in publisher:

  1. On the Arrange menu, click Layout guides,
  2. In the dialog box of figure A.8, enter number of columns required, and then click Ok.


Headers and footers

Headers are lines of text, page numbers or dates that appear at the top of every page.

Footers on the other hand, appear at the bottom of every page.

To insert Headers and Footers in Publisher:

  1. Switch to master pages.
  2. On the View menu, click on headers and footers,
  3. To insert page numbers, click Page numbers from the Insert menu.
  4. To insert text, create text frame then type in the text.

Formatting Graphical objects.

Fill and Stroke

Filling refers to applying a solid color or patterns to a drawing, while stroke refers to line style.

To apply background and stroke in publisher:

  1. Select the object.
  2. On the Format menu, click style.
  3. In the Format Auto shape dialog box (Fig.A.9), select Fill and color properties, then click Ok.

NB: To make the fill transparent, slide the transparency button or press CTR +T

Rotating an Object

To rotate an object in publisher:

  1. Select the object
  2. Hold down Ctrl key and drag the green rotation handle

Alternatively, on the Arrange menu, point to Rotate or Flip.

On the Dialog box select the option you want.

  1. Rotate the handle in clockwise direction.

Arrange Objects

If an object is hidden by another, you need to rearrange them in order of priority.

To arrange objects in publisher:

  1. Select the object you wish to bring to the front or send to the back.
  2. On Element menu, point to Arrange,
  3. Select an arrange option (Fig A.10) from the list.

Cropping graphical objects.

Cropping refers to hiding unwanted parts of a graphical object particularly in a picture. Figure A.11 shows a picture before and after cropping.

To crop an object:

  1. Select the object.
  2. On the picture toolbar, click the crop tool.
  3. Position the cropping tool over a placeholder on the object and drag inwards.

Grouping objects

If you have several objects in a publication, you may want to group them together.

To group objects in publisher:

  1. Hold down the shift key as you click/select each object.
  2. Right click the selections, and then click Group.

Wrapping text around an object

Text may be wrapped around an object

To wrap text in publisher:

  1. Select both object placed on the text frame.
  2. On format menu, click picture,
  3. In the dialog box, click layout tab, then select a wrapping style.
  4. Specify other wrapping options, and then click the Ok button.

Printing a publication

To print a publication in publisher:

  1. On the file menu, click print.
  2. Click properties button to set print options.
  3. In print dialog box, click the advanced print settings.
  4. Click the separations tab
  5. In the output list, click separations (A.12) to process CYAN, Magenta, Yellow and Black (CMYK) Separately.
  6. Finally click OK to start printing.

Solved KCSE Questions on the topic

1  a)         Define the term desktop publishing.                                               (2mks)

The process of producing publications such as newspapers, books, newsletters, cards, etc by marking areas for text and graphical objects using specialized programs installed on a desktop computer.

Give any three examples of desktop publishing software available in the market today.                                                                                             (3mks)

  • Adobe PageMaker
  • Adobe Photoshop
  • Adobe illustrator
  • Ventura
  • Microsoft Publisher
  • CorelDraw
  • Harvard graphics
  1. Identify four different types of publications that can be produced using desktop publishing software. (4mks)


  • Cards, e.g. for special occasions such as weddings, graduations, congratulations, etc
  • Newsletters
  • Newspapers
  • Calendars
  • Advertisements/Posters
  • Magazines
  • Certificates
  • Notices
  • Catalogues
  • Pamphlets
  • Books
  • Brochures
  1. Differentiate between the following:
  2. a) Pasteboard and printable page. (2mks)

Pasteboard is where text & objects are placed for editing before transferring them to the printable area; Printable page refers to the area enclosed in margin guides.                                                                                                 (2mks)

  1. b) Margins and column guides.                                                            (2mks)

Margins mark text areas on the page along the edges, while column guides divide the page into several fields.  They are used to define the printable area.

  1. c) Change case and drop cap.                                                  (2mks)

Change case is changing text from upper to lower case, sentence, title, or toggle case, while drop cap refer to making the first character in a line bigger and drops down to occupy the space in the lines that follow.

  1. d) Kerning and tracking. (2mks)

Tracking refers to changing the visual denseness or openness of characters in aline, while Kerning is fixing particular pairs of letters that are too close or too far apart from each other.

  1. e) Fill and stroke

A stroke refers to a line style, while a fill refers to applying background pattern such as shading to a graphical object.


4          a)         What is layering as used in DTP                                         (1 mk)

Layering is the placing of text or objects on top of each other.

  1. b) Why is layering very useful in a desktop publisher?                     (1mk)

It may be used to create watermarks.

  • What commands are used in place of portrait and landscape page orientation in PageMaker? (1mk)
  • Portrait-tall;
  • Landscape-wide
  • Give three methods that are used to transform an object. (3mks)
  • Rotating
  • Skewing
  • Reflecting
  1. a) what is text wrap?                                                                             (1mk)

Text wrap is controlling the flow of text over or around a graphical object.

  1. b) Give three ways you can wrap text on an object.  (3mks)
  • Make the text jump the object to the next page or column
  • Allow to text to jump over the object and continue on the same page
  • Create a rectangular text wrap around all the sides of the object.
  1. Define the term object grouping (2mks)
  • This refers to joining objects in order to manipulate them as one object.