Def of hygiene: Its everything in our surrounding and all conditions that influence our lives e.g houses around


Social amenities e.g schools, parks, cinema halls.

Environmental hygiene:

It is taking care of all these surroundings by keeping them clean, pleasant and healthy.

Why keep environment clean?

If not clean it leads to environmental pollution, that leads to diseases e.g cholera, typhoid e.t.c Disposal of household refuse

This refers to all unwanted material that is thrown away, e.g vegetable peels

  • used tins,
  • bottles (whole and broken)
  • papers
  • pieces of wood
  • paper as well as plastic bags

Ways of disposing

  1. use of dustbins,
  2. use of local authority,
  3. compost pits etc

Categories of household refuse

  • organic refuse
  • inorganic refuse
  • recycled refuse

(i) Organic refuse

It is of substances that can break down or decompose: e.g  – food particles

  • peelings
  • animals remains
  • fruit and vegetable peels

Points to consider when disposing off organic refuse

  • wrapping with old newspaper/plastic bag
  • emptying and disposing kitchen bin regularly


Ways of disposing off these refuse

  • feeding to animals,
  • using for mulching ,
  • as compost manure by burying in a hole for it to decompose and become manure

Inorganic refuse

  • it is one that doesn’t decompose e.g empty tins, bottles tops, broken cups and plates, polythene bags etc.
  • can be disposed by: – burying
  • burning

Dangers of this refuse

  • they may be a breeding place for mosquitoes that lead to diseases e.g malaria,
  • can be dangerous to children playing barefoot e.g broken bottles and can cause suffocation e.g plastic bags.

N/B:- All of them should therefore be disposed off safely and hygienically.


e.g plastic bags

  • for carrying products
  • to make totally different products,
  • milk pockets for lighting jiko,
  • plastic bottles being used for storing in drinks
  • paper from bread for storing veges in fridge
  • glass bottles on top of concrete walls for protection
  • old newspaper to line kitchen shelves
  • wet refuse being fed to animals

Collecting household refuse

  • dustbins should be always put in each room so that the rubbish is put in them

Choice of bin

  • The size should be in relation to amount of refuse
  • Should have a fitting lid
  • Bottom should be perforated for liquid not to collect in the bin
  • Should be durable

Care of the waste bins

  • Washing in warm soapy disinfectant water after emptying
  • Rinsing in warm water
  • Final rinse should be with cold water to refresh
  • Drying with a dry cloth and under shade to prevent cracking


Occurs when environment around us becomes unpleasant, unattractive and dangerous to life.

Characterized by bad smell and poisonous waste

Industralization is the major cause of pollution in water, air and land

Environmental pollution refers to contamination due to harmful substances in the air eg oil and water

Water pollution

Its through

  • Sewage/human waste not disposed well
  • Industrial waste that is washed into water bodies
  • Chemical from pesticides that are also washed eg rainwater
  • NB: This water is a hazard to animals, people’s health


Air pollution

  • It’s pollution interferes with nature. Causes of this: .
  • Smoke
  • Dust
  • Bacteria released
  • Exhaust fumes from vehicles
  • Cleaning agents
  • Natural pollutants eg pollen from plants
  • Insecticides and pesticides viii. Hair and body sprays

NB: To prevent this the pollutant should be used in moderation

Land pollution

Causes: Solid waste and chemical substances e.g

  • Rubbish on the cbd/left lying
  • Animal and human waste
  • Sharp objects eg broken bottles Expired drugs

Open sewage spills on land


These refers to measures that promote cleanliness in order to protect people from infection

It involves disposal of human, chemical and animal toxic wastes

NB: Long exposure/contact with chemicals may accommodate in the body leading to later illness.

Causes of poor sanitation a) Human waste

Common in places with no toilets/pit latrines so people help themselves in the bush The wastes get into the water when it rains, so leads to infection like cholera

  1. Industrial waste

From factories that drain wastes into rivers, lakes so pollute animals and plants in the water bodies This water is taken can lead to a health hazard

  1. Solid waste disposal Categories:

Garbage consisting of food.

  1. Rubbish consisting of polythene, tins, bottles etc and matter that doesn’t decay. Construction and demolition waste eg wood, stones and bricks.
  1. Food sanitation

Some disease can be because of spoiled food/food with toxic chemicals


Dangers of poor sanitation

  • Causes land, air and water pollution
  • Causes communicable diseases eg diarrhea, cholera, etc
  • Infestation of household pests eg rats, cockroaches, fleas, flies, etc

Common communicable diseases Mostly caused by parasites eg:

  1. Typhoid

It’s a bacterial disease caused by bacteria salmonella

It’s through contaminated water, milk and food. It’s excreted through feases and urine of human beings

Takes 10-14 days in the body before showing signs and symptoms.

Signs and symptoms

  • Fever
  • Severe front al headache
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Slow heartbeat
  • Abdominal discomfort
  • More bleeding
  • Constipation


Boiling drinking water

Wash foods thoroughly before cooking

Cooking foods properly

Using pit latrines/toilets

  • Washing hands before handling food
  • Washing hands after visiting toilet/latrine
  • Visiting doctor when signs and symptoms show
  1. Cholera

It’s an extremely severe and deadly disease caused by Vibrio cholerae bacteria. It’s signs and symptoms are:

  • Profuse diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • The two lead to dehydration hence death Bacteria enter the body through:
  • Contact with feases and vomit of infected person
  • Food and drinks contamination
  • Flies landing on food, they always get into contact with vomit and feases of the sick
  • Drinking contaminated unboiled water
  • Not practicing personal hygiene
  • Preparation of the food by victims

Prevention and treatment

  • Boiling of drinking water
  • Cooking food properly
  • Washing hands after visiting the toilet/latrine
  • Seeking treatment from doctor
  • Keeping toilet/latrine clean
  • Boiling milk before using
  • Covering food
  1. Ringworms

Are fungal infection. Affects skin of scalp and nails

It’s characterized by using shaped patches common among people who are not very clean especially children.

Ringworm of feet attacks adults most i.e athletes foot


Signs and symptoms

  • Itching between toes
  • Itching and sweaty in groins
  • Ithch beard area with scalpy patches
  • Itchy and scaly patches on head and in hands


  • Maintaining high standards of cleanliness
  • Not sharing clothes, towels, beddings, combs
  • Thoroughly drying feet between toes
  • Not sharing shoes
  1. Malaria

It’s caused by plasmodium parasite that is carried by a female anopheles mosquito. This parasite lives on red blood cells destroying them.

A mosquito that bites a person who has malaria can transmit the parasite into blood of a healthy person if bitten

Signs and symptoms

Recurrent high fever


  • Severe headache
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of appetite


  • Draining stagnant water because mosquito breed on it
  • Pouring oil into pools and ponds for young larvae will be killed
  • Cutting grass and bushes around houses
  • Using mosquito nets
  • Using insecticides
  1. Bilharzia

It’s caused by parasitic worms. Infection is due to the skin coming in contact with water that’s contaminated with the snails carrying schistosoma live

Water may be contaminated when infected people having schistosoma eggs urinate/.defecate in it. This will hatch grow and then snails present in the water. The parasite will leave the snail to the water and slay for 48 hours.

NB: It can penetrate the skin of those who swim/bathe in this water. Worms grow in blood vessels producing eggs some eggs will be passed out through urine/stool from bladder or intestines


  • Not swimming/washing in contaminated water ie avoid river water, ponds and dams – Boiling water for use and drinking

Types of parasites that cause this

  • Schistosoma nansoni- lives in intestines
  • Schistosoma haematobion – lives in bladder

Signs and symptoms

  • Diarrhea
  • Blood in stool
  • Pain during passing of stool
  • Abdominal discomfort or pain
  • Pain during passing of urine
  • Cutting pain in urethra
  • Blood in urine
  1. Tuberculosis

Caused by bacteria tubercle bacillus

Affects animals and worms passed from one person to another through coughing and sneezing. NB: Drinking infected milk causes TB of glands, bones and intestines.

Bacteria enters body through:

Contact with the victim

Breathing in contaminated dust

Breathing in air from the victim


Signs and symptoms

Heavy cough Sputum with blood

Brain, kidney, liver affected

Chest pain

Dehydration due to urinating


  • Not living in an overcrowded area
  • Proper feeding
  • Boiling cow’s milk
  • Isolating victim from the rest
  • BCG vaccine after birth
  • Mechanical check up
  • High standards of hygiene
  1. Scabies

It’s a skin disease. It’s associated with dirt caused by a parasite called itch nite

It enters in the skin and lays eggs that hatch baby parasites are the ones that cause eruptions.

Spreads from one person to another.

Attacks moist and sharp areas of body eg between toes and fingers

Signs and symptoms

Itching that is severe at night


Maintaining high standards of personal hygiene

  1. Hookworm

Can be due to walking without shoes. They move to intestinal and live from foot. They weaken the victim and can cause anaemia since the suck a lot of blood

Signs and symptoms

  • Fatigue because of anaemia
  • Uncomfortable feeling in abdomen
  • Eating too much without weight gain
  • Quickly feeling hungry
  • Dizziness


  • Putting on shoes
  • Washing hands before handling food
  • Deworming
  1. Threadworm

Common in children

Are tiny white worms seen in feaces/around anus

Signs and symptoms

  • Excessive appetite
  • Big abdomen
  • Area around anus itchy
  • Worms in stool



  • Anal area to be cleared properly after removal of stool

Keeping nails short and clean

Sterilizing night clothes

High standards of hygiene when handling food

  1. Roundworms

Eggs taken in by eating contaminated food, drinking contaminated water, iodine in the intestines, sometimes bile duct, liver and trachea

NB: Drinking water should be from a clean source and must be boiled

Signs and symptoms

  • Abdominal pains
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Convulsions
  • Enuresis (bed wetting) in children
  1. Tapeworm

Both in adults and children due to eating infected beef/pork that have been undercooked

Heat destroys it if foods are cooked properly

It’s white and flat and has a head and small segments that break and are passed in the feaces. 

Signs and symptoms

  • Excessive appetite
  • Mild abdominal colic
  • Segments in stool


  • Cooking meat and pork well
  • Washing hands thoroughly
  • Inspection of meat by veterinary officials
  1. Pinworm

Common in places where there are no latrines. It lives in human intestines, it’s fully developed in hooks and lays eggs.

Signs and symptoms

  • Distended stomach
  • Excessive appetite
  • Area around anus itchy


  • Using pit latrines/toilets
  • Washing hands thoroughly and warming water
  • Cooking food properly
  • Boiling drinking water



  1. Free drainage

Water is thrown away without any proper plan. Common in the rural


  • Encourages breeding of mosquitoes from swampy and damp surroundings
  • Causes soil erosion
  • Causes bad smells that attract flies and pests
  • Makes surrounding unsightly
  • Makes area slippery
  1. Open drainage

Has open drainage called gutters for draining water. The gutters are normally on the roof fixed to collect rain water

Concrete ones land water from each holding to main gutters by roadside that carry water out This can be made by digging a narrow drainage system that is not connected


  • Are easy to contract and can be made without expensive fittings
  • Are easy to clean and maintain


  • Get flooded when it rains heavily so its dangerous
  • Unsightly and smelly if not cleaned
  • Can be a breeding place for pests


Care of open drainages

  • Should be shallow for easy cleaning
  • Should be kept clear of rubbish for water to flow freely
  • Disinfecting regularly
  1. Concealed drainage system

Is the best for removal of water from kitchen, bathroom and water closed

  1. Used where there is piped water supply waste water is through pipes land to the concealed drains eg disposal of waste water from kitchen and bathroom.
  2. Disposal of sewage – waste from water closet
  3. Inspection chamber – its meeting point for 2/more drams carrying dirty water bathroom, kitchen, toilet. It’s concrete pity is covered with air tight iron cover that can be lifted up for inspection
  4. Sewer – it’s a very large pipe where sewage from various houses goes to. Runs underground and goes out of town to sewage works
  5. Sewage works – it’s where sewage is treated making it harmless, bacteria is destroyed. Sludge (solid water) is separated from effluent (liquid) processed then sold as fertilizer Liquid is treated then flows to rivers or used for irrigation.

Septic tanks

If house is not connected to main sewer then the wastes will be drained into these tanks

It has two pits below ground. Sewage drains into 1st pit, solid wastes sink to bottom and liquid is removed by local authority.

Liquid flows to next pit and is drained into ground

Cesspool (pit)

Are concrete tanks built underground used where there are no sewers. Should be emptied regularly by local authority

Sewage pit

It’s a hole filled with big stones and is covered with a slab of corrugated iron then soil

Waste water is drained into it and soaks in the surrounding soil. Used where there are no public drainages

Should be away from the house and well


  • Are hygienic content not exposed
  • Are not unsightly


  • Only used in places with piped water supply
  • Expensive to install
  • Careless using makes maintenance expensive


Care of concealed drainage system

  1. The sink
  • Ensure water in the bend is clean by allowing water to run through
  • Put disinfection down to keep off bacteria
  • Put grease solvents down sink to prevent blockage
  • Unscrew cleaning eye occasionally to clean the bend
  • If there is a blockage: remove any pieces of food

Fill bottom with water and use a rubber puncher to unblock For hot detergent water through to melt grease

  1. The water closet
  • Flushing after use
  • Cleaning and disinfecting daily
  • Not throwing newspaper, pads into the toilet
  1. Drains
  • Removing litter (leaves regularly
  • Keeping trays clear of any solids
  • Pouring hot water and grease solvent eg soda down drawn to clear and prevent bad smells – Checking at inspection chamber to ensure they are clear of solids frequently.

Repair of clothes and household articles

  • Clothes are kept neat and in good repair to retain their smartness
  • To prevent repair of clothes, they should be given good care during washing, wearing and storing and after buying

Buying clothes

  • Clothes should always be examined and areas found weak examined coz ready made clothes are produced in a mass
  • Tightening all buttons to prevent loss
  • Strengthening other fastening
  • Strengthening helms, seams and base of openings
  • Attaching hanging loop on skirt waists and jackets
  • Widening opening to prevent straining them

Wearing clothes

  • Don’t wear/remove clothes without unbuttoning to avoid straining them
  • Pulling socks and stretching them on palm and sliding foot through
  • Cutting toe nails to avoid tearing them
  • Avoiding hooking household articles these creates holes on them


  • Not hanging on hedges can easily be torn
  • Taking care to weak fabrics eg by not rubbing when wet
  • Repairing before washing to prevent torn part from elongating

Storing clothes


  • Hanging
  • Folding and storing

Methods of repairing clothes

  • Patching
  • Darning

Factors that determine methods/choice

  • Size of tear – big hole suits in a patch because its storage
  • Washability – a patch can stand frequent washing more than a darn
  • Fabric – patching suits thin fabric and vice versa to darn



  • It creates a new piece of fabric within a hole,
  • It suits repair of small holes and thin sections of knitted and woven fabric,

Equipment needed

  1. i) fine darning needle ii) matching thread in colour and thickness

Rules for darning

  • don’t pull the fabric while darning,
  • use matching thread (colour and thickness),
  • a loop of thread should hang at each end to allow room for shrinkage,
  • the darn should be irregular to distribute strain of new thread,
  • should be darned on w.s.,
  • stitches should be as short at possible to make the darn fine,

Darning a hole in woven fabric

  • trim edges of hole,
  • darn from outside for the thin area round the hole to be reinforced, – arrange strands to be over and under edge of hole,
  • when darn in complete in first direction turn work and darn across opposite direction till hole is filled.

 Darning a hole in knitted

  • should be from w.s.,
  • should begin from outside hole to inside,
  • catch free loops on cut edges to parent laddering,

Machine darning 


  • it is very quick,

N/B:- it is done on article whose appearance doesn’t matter,

  • Done on e.g nightwears and household linen,
  • Builds small tearing,
  • A backing may be added on underside of hole to add strength,


  1. remove press foot for fabric to be handled with ease,
  2. strength the material on the embroidery loop for

w.s. to be on top,

place loop (embroidery run) under needle flat side of lood on r.w,

  1. slowly stitch moving fabric forwards backwards side to side till hole is covered,


  • tears caused by an accident,
  • a clear tear has warp and weft edges,
  • fishborn stitches are used to hold edges together before darning,
  • it is worked on w.s,
  • a thread is fastened the needle passed under one side then the other to draw edges then the other to draw edges together,
  • thread is then reinforced

Hedge tear

Are triangular on straight threads.  Darn can be confined closely to cut.


Plan darn extending 6mm beyond cut.

Draw edges together with fishborn trichering before beginning to darn.

Darn beyond cut 6mm to 1cm depending on cut and type of fabric, continue during 6mm to 1cm beyond cut thread hanging.

  • Darn in a similar may from other end, darn across corner till stitches are level with first darning.
  • Darning at the corner helps keep the grain of fabric strong and symmetrical.


Across cut darn

  • It is cut not on straight grain,
  • It is a clean slit that is cut on cross,
  • Darning is done in the direction of weft and warp threads.


  • hold edges together with fishbone stitches,
  • darn 6mm away from end of cut warpwrist,
  • turn work darn weftwise,

Straight cut darn

  • it is cut on straight thread and has no worn area surrounding,
  • darning is done on r.s,


  • begin with a few rows of darning stitches beyond cuts end.


Done when a large area is worn thin and its too big for a darn,

Advantages; it is quick and strong, Best when done by machine, Can be functional/decorative.

General rule for patching 

  • should be inconspicuous unless of decorative,
  • should be strong,
  • should match the article in texture, weave and colour,
  • the warp thread of patch & garment should match & patterns on printed material should match, 5) if near a hole/tear the patch should be sewn first then hem/ream fixed, 6) should be square/oblong.

Types of patches

  1.  print patch
  2.  calico patch

print patch

  • it is for repairing printed material.
  • if is put on the r.s of garment


  1.  cut patch large enough to cover all worn area plus 1cm seam allowance,
  2.  fold seam allowance to w.s untie corners to reduce bulb press flat,
  • match grain and design, pin tack patch w.s to r.s of garment.
  1. remove pins machine it in position,
  2. trim worn out ones leaving 2cm turning,
  3. neat raw eagles using loop stitches
  4. Calico patch

Used for bed and table linen,

  • Its strong and flat so easy to launder,
  • Old pieces of actual fabric should be used for patch to match/ should be one that is near in colour, texture and material,
  • It is placed on w.s of fabric,
  • Should be oblong/square for grain to be easily matched,
  • If new patch is to be used the fabric should be washed and ironed to allow it to shrink,


  1. cut patch large enough to cover the hole and worn out area around plus 1cm seam allowance,
  2. place warp threads of patch to warps of work,
  3. fold turning r.s entire corners ,
  4. pin patch to w.s of work,
  5. tack it in position hem all round or machine close to edges,
  6. trim worn out areas within 1cm,
  7. crease patch diagonally skip all four corners to 5cm of edge of patch, diagram
  • crease along straight of fabric corner to corner,
  • trim torn materials along fold,
  • snip into corners, turn under edges pin back hem, diagra
  • remove backing press,
  • machine close to edge, diagram



Hanging hems

  • strong and appropriate stitches should be used to avoid opening up of hem and before fixing them edges should be well neatened,
  • seams that open to the hem should be strengthened before fixing hem by edge stitching/loopstitching.

Gaping seams


  • garment being too light,
  • making seams with very large stitches; to avoid this clothes should be of the right size and seams should be strengthened,

To repair

  • unpicking all weak stitches along seamline,
  • a row of strong stitches along seam is made,
  • hem must be removed before stitching a seam that opens at hem,
  • appropriate stitches to be used hen fixing the hem,
  • seam should be pressed flat,
  • raw edges should be neatened if necessary,

Replacement of buttons

Reasons for replacing

  1.  when one is lost and one is not able to get a similar one,
  2. when one needs other types of buttons on his/her garment,

Points to consider

  • buttons should match fabric/contrast if for decorative purpose

How to replace 

  • remove the remaining ones,
  • place new buttons at same position of old,
  • attach correctly on double fabric,

Buttonhole repair

Wear out because of pressure on them if garment is tigh


  • buttons should not be strained because repair interferes with garments beauty,
  • if button hole opens up then a decorative method should be used for repair,

Repair of belts and loops

  • the two wear out because of strain on them,
  • they strain and open up so the correct size should be worn,
  • sometimes they crack and split on sides so a strong piece of same fabric should be added on w.s to strengthen,
  • firm row of stitch to strengthen can be worked. this can be for beauty too.

Loops/belts carriers

  • are for holding belts,
  • loops may get loose and come off because of strain, – strain can be due to using wider belts than loops,
  • incase they come off should be stitched immediately.



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