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SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND:A.SULPHUR (S) Sulphur is an element in Group VI(Group 16)of the Periodic table . It has atomic number 16...







Any liquid/solid that can be taken by man to provide energy and supply the body with materials that are to build and repair tissues.

NB:- the ingested substances that are not absorbed by body are called wastes,


A process by which the body obtains food/nutrients, digest modify them and utilize them to make the body healthy.  Absorption and assimilation of these substances by body in alimentary system is called metabolism.  

the process includes disposal of waste matter through secretion and excretion.

Food nutrients

Food is classified according to its nutritional value/its function the body.


Proteins – body building foods

Carbohydrates – energy giving foods

Vitamins & minerals – protective foods.


Are cupboards of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.  Have nitrogen, sulphur and ammonium,

  • have approximately 22 different amino acids, each protein food is different from the other because of the amino paid present out of 22 ten are for growth and repair of worn out tissues. Adults need only 8 of them, children require 10
  • non essential amino acids are synthesized by body from those supplied by food,
  • enzymes of proteins


Complete / first class proteins

  • also called proteins of high biological value,
  • are from animal sources, e.g meat, eggs, milk and cheese,

NB:- only plant protein with essential amino acids.

Second class proteins

Are plant protein – don’t have all essential amino acid.  Most are obtained from (i) pulses i.e dry edible, leguminous pod seeds e.g

  • peas
  • beans
  • black/green grams
  • lentils etc
  • nuts are also under second class proteins.

NB:- it is important for one to eat both animal proteins and plant proteins for the body to be supplied with good quality proteins.

Functions of proteins in the body

  • for growth and repair and replacement of work to tissues form a major component of body muscles, brain and body fluids.
  • provide energy in absence of energy
  • prevent kwarshiokor

Major sources of proteins (animal source)

  • Beef,
  • Poultry,
  • Fish,
  • Fowl,
  • Milk, –
  • Cheese etc.

Others include insects e.g termites, locusts and grasshoppers

Plant source

Soya beans

  • All pulses,
  • Nuts i.e peas, beans and lentils, black beans (njahi), simsim, peanuts, cashew nuts, monkey nuts etc.

Effects of heat on proteins

  • when exposed to heat they coagulate and denature if too high, coagulation – process varies from one protein to another.  g egg white coagulates before you at high temperature.  It too high heat is used, the protein toughens, becomes shrunken and rubbery and less digestable. NB:- Moist heat makes collagen to change to gelatine hence becomes tender and soft.
  • dry heat melts fat and causes extraction of juices that give the taste of roast,
  • earthen heating denature, proteins making it hand and indigestible,


Protein foods:


Food value of milk

  1. i) has 2 protein – lacta/bumin and

– caseinogein

Small traces           – lactoglobilin

NB:- it is called a perfect food because:

  • it is very nutritious
  • contains all necessary nutrients in correct proportion,
  • has not waste,
  • it easy to digest
  • has fat (cream) that is easy to digest so good for children, side and elderly,
  • carbohydrates i.e in form of sugar.
  1. a) lactose has no sweet taste and not fermented by yeast
  2. minerals i.e calcium



  1. Vitamins A, B2 (riboflavine), B (thiamine) little amount and nicotinic acid.

NB:- lacking ones are C and D but are syndclined by the cows during sunny weather.

Average composition of milk

Protein 3 to 3.5% per litre,

Fat 3.5 to 4.5%

Sugar 4 – 5%

Minerals 0.7%

Water 87% – 88%

Types of milk

Fresh milk

This milk forms a thick layer of cream when left to stand homogenized.

Pasteurized milk

Its milk that has been subjected to temperature 630 – 660 held there for 30minutes then cooled rapidly very fast.

Ultra heat milk (UHT)

  • can last for long,
  • it is homogenized (pasteurized milk is passed/forced through fine compartments under pressure.  This breaks up fat globules finely distributing them throughout in milk.  The milk never forms the cream line and milk is easily digested, treated to 350C for 1 second it is cooled and packed.


  • milk lasts for long time.

Powdered milk

Milk (fresh) is sprayed on a very hot stainless wall so falls as powder.

Evaporated milk

Fresh milk is boiled to remove water leaving concentrated milk twice, strength of normal milk.

Condensed milk

Milk is boiled to remove water and sugar added to give a thick syrup and kept in sterile tins.

Milk products


Cream is removed from milk and sold can be single cream/double cream.


  • from milk fat,
  • served with carbohydrates foods e.g bread scones baked potatoes, boiled maize etc; NB:- should always be in a cool place if kept for long it becomes rancid.


  • it is from soured of sour milk,
  • milk is curdled by use of lactic and producing bacteria,
  • cheese is most concentrated of all protein,


  • hard cheese (cheddar)
  • soft cheese Danish hive,
  • lean cheese from skimmed milk (Dutch cheese),
  • cream cheese from cream, any always soft and doesn’t keep for long
  • processed cheese


Food value of cheese 

  • proteins (high biological value proteins),
  • fatty acids that add flavour to it
  • phosphorous,
  • be eaten with a starchy food and should be chewed thoroughly,
  • it should be crated before putting on salads/ starching foods

Effects of heat on milk

Boiling spoils flavour,

It slightly reduces food value,

NB:_ it readily boils over because of the skin that forms when milk is exposed to heat

Uses of milk;- making

  1.  sauces e.g custard sauce, white sauce,
  2. baltas, beverage e.g milk tea, coffee etc
  3. enriching foods mashed potatoes, puddings


  • it is flesh from animals and birds.
  • Internal organs meat is called offal
  • Intestines are called tripe
Sources of meat  
–     Ox and cow – beef
–     Sheep – mutton
–     Lamb – lamb
–     Pig – pork when salted and smoked it is bacon
–     Calf – veal


  • it is flesh from animals and birds.
  • Internal organs meat is called offal
  • Intestines are called tripe



  • flesh should be pale pinkish,
  • finely grained,
  • should have smooth fat that is white and slightly oily,
  • should always be used when fresh

Methods of cooking meat

  • roasting and baking suits wing rib, side rump steak, beef steak and top rump, – boiling and steaming tough cuts of meat e.g shoulder, neck, silverside, –      offal – internal organs e.g liver, kidney grilled.
  • Rabbits – rabbit
  • Game – animal/blood protected by game law (Game meat)
  • Poultry – chicken, ducks and turkey


Food value of meat

  • problem first class protein,
  • fat,
  • B group riboflaxim and nicotinic acid,
  • Thiamine (little)
  • iron, phosphorous and calcium,
  • water 60% to 75%,

Structure of meat

  • lean meat form the muscle,
  • it consists of little bundles of very fine fibres,
  • fibres are filled with water,
  • extractives that give meat the flavours;

care:     (i) mineral salts

(ii) proteins

Elastive makes up the walls of/little tubular fibres

  • it is yellow and brown as tendon,
  • fat appears in little globules in fibres,
  • amount of fat depends on type of meat,

Quality of meat;

Refer to tenderness/toughness of meat.

Factors that determine quality

  • length of fibre,
  • thickness of fibres,
  • amount of coactive tissue,
  • the age of animal,

the older the animal the tougher the meat.


  • beef from shin and necks is tough, loin is tender,
  • breasts of chicken is tender, legs are tough,

NB:- toughness is reduced by hanging when animal is slaughtered freshly, myocin (soluble protein) slots and becomes insoluble,

rig or mortic (stiffening of muscles takes place immediately an animal is slaughtered causing meat to toughen.

This condition reduces after a few days because acids and enzymes are produced hence soften meat making it tender and flavour is also improved.

Methods of softening meat before cooking

  1. beating with a rolling pin/steak hammer, it crushes fibres and reduce stringiness,
  2. dipping in lemon juice/vinegar or adding to cooking liquid,

NB:- tomatoes can also be used to add in liquid.  The acid in the lemon/vinegar changes connective tissue collagen to gelada,

  • rubbing surface of meat with fruit extract/sap of pawpaw, enzyme papain in it works like the enzymes in the digestive tract

NB:- papain can be bought in liquid form or granular form.

Recognition of good quality meat;


  • firm and smooth to touch,
  • if lean meat should be a good red colour and should have small fibres,
  • cream fat with fresh smell,
  • if from an old animal should be darker in colour


  • red texture fine and firm to touch, white fat and tender


  • same as mutton but bones should be small, – flesh should be light coloured, –         finer grains.


  • pale and pinkish in colour,
  • finely grained,
  • smooth fat that is white and slightly oily,

NB:- should never be reheated because it becomes poisonous, should always be used when fresh.

Assign; drawing cuts of meat

Method of cooking meat

  1. prime cuts of meat
  2. roasting and baking e.g wing ribs, ribs, sirloin, rump steak, beef steak and top rump
  3. tough cuts e.g neck
  4. boiling and stewing, shoulder and silverside,
  5. offal (internal organs) – grilled, fried and stewing e.g kidney, liver


Effects of heat on meat

  • fat melts,
  • proteins coagulates,
  • meat becomes firmer,
  • colour changes from red to brown, elastic of muscles and fibres contacts and squeezes out juices hence meat shrinks, the juices give roasted/grilled a coating (burn) that makes it tasty and appetizing,

if moist these juices run into the cooking liquid so all soluble vitamins and minerals are retained in it.

NB:- it is good to use the liquid used for cooking because it is nutritious e.g serving it or using to prepare other dishes e.g soups and gravy,

  • Further cooking changes collagen to gelatine that is easy to digest.
  • Overcooking makes it dry because the protein are denatured,

Reasons for cooking meat

  • improve appearance,
  • to make it more digestible,
  • improve flavour,
  • kill germs,


  • fish must always be eaten fresh because the flavour deteriorates very fast,
  • flesh has muscle fibres that vary in length and thickness according to type,
  • it has short and fine fibres compared to beef,
  • the fibres are packed together in flakes and has little connective tissues, – fat is distributed in fibres.

Types of fish


  1. non fatty/white fish e.g tilapia, kingfish, fat is stored in liver,
  2. oily fish – fat is distributed in fish e.g Nile perch, sandiness, salmon etc
  3. shell fish – e.g crabs, oyster, lobsters, shrimps and prawns,

Food value of fish

  • proteins – first class proteins

Factors to consider when buying fish

NB: Form of fish

  • fresh,
  • frozen
  • canned,
  • smoked,
  • sundried
  1. should be bought on the day it is to be cooked, buy frozen, dried/smoked
  2. should not have unpleasant smell,
  3.  should have bright eyes, moist and sunken,
  4. scales should be plenty, shiny and moist,
  5. firm flesh and moist,

Reasons for cooking fish

  • to conserve,
  • to add to its natural flavour,
  • to prevent it from falling apart

Steaming whole fish

  • soaking for a few minutes using cold water for scales to loosen,
  • removing scales with a knife,
  • splitting, underside of fish,
  • internal organs and cleaning thoroughly

Methods of cooking fish i) Grilling

Used to conserve the flavour of fish, suits whole flat small fish, NB:- points to consider when grilling.

  1. Grill should be moderately hot,
  • Fish should be turned ones to prevent it from breaking

 Moist methods

Shouldn’t be boiled because most flavour is lost.  It also flakes easily.


Avoid perforated steamers unless fish is wrapped in aluminum foil, why is because are lot into water below. Instead use 2 plates on top of boiling water


  • Fish is cooked in very little liquid that has salt lemon juice/vinegar, omo and spices

NB:- top should be basted as liquid simmers.



  • juices are sealed in,
  • flavours are sealed in,
  • foods don’t burn,
  • to add nutrient,
  • makes food have a crispy texture

NB:- Fat should always be drained for it not to be absorbed by the coating.


Effect of heat on fish

  1. the liquid protein coagulates at 600 – 700 (140 – 1600F),
  2. the juices are squeezed out at 700C:


It takes a short time to cook because

It has small amounts of connective tissue, iii) it cooks very fast if it is in moist heat, iv) overcooking makes flakes fall apart, v) juices run out, vi) fibres dry and toughen (protein are denatured)


Food value of eggs

  • has a shell that is made of inedible calcium carbonate, it is lined with a tough white, a white string like membrane i.e chalaza suspends it in the egg white.

Consumption of an egg


      White 13%

Whole egg 15%

Protein 16%

32% in yolk

8.28% in egg white

Whole egg 10%


iii) Minerals 1% in yolk and whole 1% while has 0.75%.

Nutritive value a) Proteins 

  • vitellin, – livetin has all amino acids, therefore egg yolk is most valuable of all proteins.
  1. Fat

Finely emulsified is in digestible form.

  1. Vitamins

 A, D, B(thiamine) B2 (riboflavin, nicicin traces)

  1. Minerals e.g sulphur, calcium phosphorous and iron,
  2. Water 75% of egg.

 NB:- no carbohydrates present.

Testing for egg freshness 

NB:- An egg remains fresh for 3 weeks.  It depends on how it is stored because its shell is very porous.  When an eggs stays for sometimes.  Water evaporates and air fills the air.  This makes the egg light.  If fresh it sinks when dipped in water.

Breaking on a saucer

  • When broken a fresh one has the yolk standing up while is thick with only a narrow border,
  • One that is not fresh has the yolk flattening when broken and mixing with white because as the egg stays the membrane around yolk weakens hence cause it to spread,
  • When broken if egg continues to stay longer it is consistency thins,
  • Stale smell

The egg has an unpleasant smell when broken

Storage of egg

  • Should be kept with rounded and uppermost,
  • if on the side the chalaza is overstretched so forces yolk to rest on shell so it makes the egg to decomposer factor.

Uses of eggs in cookery as main dish e.g fried, crumbled egg, curry etc,

  • thickening agent eg. When making sauces, custards and puddings its because, the egg protein coagulates when heated so thickens the mixture,
  • for glazing e.g dinner rolls, scones pastries and breads to give a golden brown crust,
  • for garnishing e.g salads cooked vegetables etc,
  • binding agent,

e.g meat and meatballs,

  • coating agent

e.g fish, chicken coated with bread crumbs to prevent food from breaking/absorbing oil, to enrich other dishes e.g porridge,

  • as an amulsifier e.g in mayonnairre

Effects of heat on eggs

  • albumen becomes opaque and firm;

NB:- it dissolves in cold liquid, firmness degree depends on heat degree and length of cooking time. – Egg white hardens faster arm yolk because of liquid % of fat in yolk.




Nutritive value

  1. proteins
  2. calcium
  3.  Iron
  4. group to vitamins

NB:- lack of Vitamin A, Vit C and fat

Points to note on pulses

  • must always be soaked before cooking,
  • soaking water should always be used for cooking,
  • soda should be put in soaking water to soften skin,

NB:- they are normally used in place of meat


Food value

  • proteins
  • fat (high proportion)
  • carbohydrates (little)
  • calcium and iron,
  • thiamine


  • are complex substances of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
  • constitute 2/3 of food in our diet,
  • are quickies and enzymes digested,

NB:- are changed chemically to simple sugars for item to be absorbed in the blood,  amount required by individual depends on

  1. age
  2. body size
  • amount of work be done

Carbohydrates occurs in food in form of starch and sugars.  Excess of it is changed to fat for future use.




disaccharides polysaccharides
                        examples examples starches
                        glucose sucrose cellulose
                        fructose lactose  
                        galactose maltose  

Monosacharides/simple sugars

  • simplest form
  • all digested carbohydrates are converted into simple sugars that can be absorbed into the blood, – it is done through the villi e.g small


  • glucose/dextrose found in ripe fruits and are


  • its amount is controlled by insuline from pancreas,
  • inefficiently of insulin can lead to diabetes,
  • it’s a source of energy so its normally given to invalids and athletes,


NB:- can be extracted from starch commercially to be used for making sweets. Fructose

Sources             (i) honey                        (ii) fruits

(iii)plant juices

Similar to glucose


  • formed during digestion of lactose found in milk sugar

Dissacliaride/double sugars

  • has 2 monosaccharides, for dissacharides to be absorbed during digestion they are broken into 2; e.g sucrose

from          (i) sugarcane


NB:- has 2 sugars glucose and fructose:


  • its milk sugar,
  • its not so sweet,
  • it’s a combination of glucose and galactose


  • sources from germination of barley grain,
  • has 2 sugars glucose and glucose,


  • more complex than disaccharides,
  • are insoluble in water

e.g   (i)  starch   (ii)  glycogen

(iii) cellulose

NB:- during digestion the starches are broken into simple sugars.

Cellulose is never broken down but it acts as roughage in humans.


Found in ;

  • cassava
  • yams
  • arrowroots,
  • cereals
  • pulses Heatrine
  • when exposed to heat starch changes to dextrine that is sweater e.g
  • Toasted bread,
  • Breakfast cereals (cornflakes)
  • Crusts of loaf
  • It is also more soluble and digestable. Toasted bread is more digestable than untoasted.


  • it is from animal carbohydrates.
  • Glucose is normally changed to glycogen for storage in liver and muscle tissues,
  • It can again be changed to glucose for use,



  • most complicated form carbohydrates,
  • it has very mary sugar units,
  • its not digestible so only acts as roughage but not food,
  • it is only digested by herbivorous sources of cellulose
  • skin of framework of (i) fruits    (ii) vegetables

Functions of carbohydrates in the body

  •  to produce heat
  • assist body use the nutrients,
  • regulates body processes

Sources of carbohydrates

  • cereal grains,
  • starchy roots and tubers,
  • sugar cane
  • beef sugar,
  • beat sugar,
  • sweet potatoes etc

Effects of heat on carbohydrates (moist)

  • absorb moisture when exposed to heat swell and burst,
  • gelatimize on further heating,

NB:- heat softens cellulose,

  • sugar melts and forms a syrup turns to caramel, –
  • continuous heating makes it to chain.

Dry heat on carbohydrates

  • starch is changed to dextrin e.g bread,
  • further heating makes dextrin to chain,

Effect of cooking on sugar;

  • it forms a solution in liquids that form syrups when the liquid evaporate,
  • if with no liquid it melts,
  • colour changes to brown i.e caramelizes,
  • overheating makes it to chain and become bitter with unpleasant flavour,

Fats and oils


From  – animals

  • plants

Made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Fats have may fatty acids mixed with glycerol.  The fatty acids give them the flavour and solid a liquid state. e.g of the fatty acids

  • stearic and palmitic acid make them hard,
  • bortyric acid gives flavour
  • oleic acid makes it soft/liquid,
  • caprylic acid gives flavour to gouts milk

NB:- excess fat is always deposited around internal organs e.g heart, kidney and below skin.


  • provides energy for the body,
  • one stored under skin acts as an insulator i.e keeps body warm,
  • protects internal organs from physical harm,
  • improves palatability food and satiety individually and separately,


Animal fat eg  – dopping, bacon from meat

  • fish liver oil
  • flesh of oily fish
  • eggs from yolk

Vegetable fats

  • olive oil
  • corn oil
  • nut oil
  • coconut oil

NB: fat should be taken with carbohydrate food to make it easily digestable e.g bread, butter cheese.



Its ¾ of body weight


  • Formation of all body fluids
  • Helps in excretion of waste materials from kidney and sweat
  • Maintains body temperature by perspiration
  • Helps in digestion and food absorption

NB: Should be replaced everyday because its lost on daily basis through sweat and wastes









Are for normal metabolic and growth. Must be provided in the diet because the body even manufacturers them apart from vitamin D


  1. Fat soluble, ADE
  2. Water soluble B&C


  • plant
  • animal

 Vitamin A

Its fat soluble and not lost in water. its destroyed through oxidation on exposure to air

Thos process changes it to a useless compound Vitamin A is stored in liver, kidney and adipose tissues in animals and humans.

Vegetable fat has no vitamin A but it’s always fortified (added) during manufacture CLASSIFICATION OF CARBOHYDRATES

1)      Monossaccharide/simple sugars

They are the simplest digestion they are always converted to simple sugars absorbed in the blood; through villi of – Small intestine  e.g

  • Glucose
  • Dextrose

N/B:- naturally found in          (i) ripe fruits

(ii) vegetables (some)

  • Fructose
  • Galactose


  • the amount in blood is controlled by insulin that is produced from pancreas, – lack of insulin causes diabetes,


It is a source of energy, so mostly given to invalids and athletics

N/B:- it is also from starch (commercially) attracted to make sweets.


Sources:           (i) fruits

  • honey
  • plant juices



–     formed during digestion of lactose a sugar in milk.

  • Disaccharide / double sugars

Has 2 monosaccharides.

During digestion its broken into two for easy absorption.


  • Sucrose


  • Sugar cane
  • Beef root
  • Fruits
  • Some vegetables

Has two sugars            (a) glucose,

(b) fructose


It milk sugar that is not sweet


  • milk,
  • has 2 sugars (i) galactose

(ii) glucose


  • has 2 molecules of glucose


They are more complex carbohydrates

they are not soluble in water.


  1. i) starch ii) glycogen

iii) cellulose

after digestion starch and glycogen are broken down to simple sugars but not cellulose so it just acts as roughage.

  1.  Starch





Arrowroots (tubers)

Seeds e.g cereals and pulses

  • when starch is heated it changes to dextrine that is sweater;

e.g (i) toasted bread

  • breakfast cereals (cornflax)
  • crusts of loaves etc

It is more soluble than starch


It is glucose that has been converted to glycogen to be stored in liver, muscle tissues, – can be converted to glucose for use again by the body


Most complicate carbohydrates

  • has loose of sugar units,
  • acts as roughage because it is indigestible,
  • only digested by herbivores animals;


Skin of framework of

  • fruits
  • vegetables
  • cereals


Functions of carbohydrates

  1.  production of heat
  2. production of energy
  3. assist body in using the nutrients
  4.  regulate body processes

Sources of carbohydrates

  • cereal grain,
  • starchy roots,
  • tubers,
  • sugar cane and beef sugar

Effects of moist heat on carbohydrates.

  • Grains absorb moisture, swell burst and gelatinizing,
  • Cellulose softens
  • Sugar melts forms syrup, turns to caramel,
  • Continued heating makes in change

Deficiency lead to permicious/vegaloblastics anaemia

What is it?

  • It is condition where the red blood cells are enlarged become few with limited capacity to carry oxygen.
  • It is a deadly condition and is not treated;

Sources of Vit. B12




Functions of Vitamin B12 in the body, for formation of red blood cells.

Vitamin K

  • Its fat soluble,
  • It is for normal clotting of blood,


  • Cabbage
  • Spinach
  • Peas
  • Cauliflower
  • Cereals

N/B:- it can be synthesized by intestinal bacterial action so its deficiency is rare.

Vitamin E

  • It is fat soluble
  • It is for normal fertility


e.g       – calcium         – phosphorus     – sulphur

Others are needed in traces, e.g

  • iodine
  • copper
  • zinc

Minerals from the skeletal structure of the body.

  • Are found in everybody cell and all body fluids;

Most importance are:

  • Calcium
  • Phosphorus
  • Iron
  • Iodine
  • Sulphur
  • Sodium chloride
  • Magnesium


It is for bones and teeth


  1. works together with Vit. D forming strong bones and teeth
  2. it is for normal clotting of blood,
  3. maintains a healthy nervous system and conduction of nervous impulses
  4. works with Vit. D and phosphorus to prevent rickets in children and osteomalaria.


  • Milk
  • Cheese
  • Eggs
  • Whole bread
  • Calcium fortified flour
  • Green veges
  • Hard water
  • Small fish eaten with bones.


Lack of calcium causes;

  • poor development of bones and teeth,
  • leads to rickets of severe,
  • failure of blood to clot properly
  • muscle crumps



It is necessary for body tissues;


  • works with calcium for normal hardening of bones and teeth,
  • forms part of nerve and brain and body cells
  • one of enzymes that control metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates,
  • inform of sodium phosphate maintains correct acid-base balance of blood


  • meat and meat products,
  • dairy products
  • green vegetables
  • fish
  • eggs
  • whole cereals and pulses

Sodium chloride (common salt)


  • activate muscles
  • necessary for healthy skin
  • helps body fluids work well
  • stimulates nerves


  • proteins foods
  • green vegetables
  • onion
  • sodium chloride (common salt)
  • N/B:- it is in all body fluids


  • Correct functioning of muscles


Starch is converted to dextrine,

  • It is a more soluble starch than dextrine that is why toasted bread is more soluble than toasted, – Further heating chars it

Effects of cooking on sugar

  • sugar turns to a liquid (form a syrup as it evaporates.)
  • if it is cooked with no liquid it melts quickly and browns, i.e caramelizes,
  • overheating makes it to change and develop a very bitter unpleasant flavour,


Are from animal and vegetable because plants and animals convert carbohydrates and store it as fat, – the two are a source of energy,

  • fats have many fatty acids combined with glycerol,
  • these acids are the cause of the characteristic flavour of fats
  • they are the cause of its solid and liquid state
  • ref; to 135 of fatty acids and function;

N/B:- too much fat is always deposited around delicate internal organs e.g heat, kidney below skin

Functions of fats and oils

  • provides fuel and energy for body,
  • fat under the skin acts as an insulator so keeps body warm,
  • one around delicate parts help protect them from harm,
  • it improves palatability of food and satiety


  • animal fats
  • plant oils

Animals fats

  • meat e.g dripping suitland and lawn,
  • fish e.g fish, liver oil, flesh of oily fish
  • eggs e.g egg yolk

Vegetable fats

e.g  – olive oil

  • nut oil
  • coconut oil

Fat should always be taken with come carbohydrates to ease digestion because it is hard to digest; e.g bread and butter

Cheese and marcoroni


It is ¾ of body weight,


  • for formation of all body fluids,
  • excretes waste materials from kidney and sweat,
  • maintaining body temperature by perspiration
  • aids digestion and absorption of food,
  • its lost continuously from the body through lungs and sweat so has to be replaced


  • water
  • drinks
  • beverages
  • fruits and vegetables
  • various foods



Are for normal metabolism and growth because the body can’t manufacture vitamins.  It only manufactures Vit. D, therefore must always be provided in the diet,


  • fat soluble A, D, E, and K,
  • water soluble B and C


  • plant sources,
  • animal sources

VITAMIN A (retinol)

Its fat soluble and not in water.  so not lost in it.

Its destroyed through oxidation when exposed to air, it room temperature.

  • Its converted by oxidation to useless compound when fat becomes rancid
  • It is stored in the liver, kidney and a dispose tissue in humans and animals, – It doesn’t occur naturally in vegetables fortified with it during manufacture,


N/B;- supplied directly as carotene that is converted by the body to Vit. A.

  • Green leafy vegetables,
  • Carrots,
  • Pumpkins
  • Tomatoes
  • Pawpaw,
  • Tomatoes
  • Vegetables and fruits with deep yellow and dark green colouring.

 Animal sources

  • Fish liver oil,
  • Eggs,
  • Liver,
  • Kidney,
  • Butter,
  • Herrings,
  • Marganine,
  • Fresh and powdered milk.

Functions of Vit. A in the body

  • For growth in children and protection,
  • Protection from diseases of mucuus membrane,
  • For healthy growth of skin
  • Quick and proper healing of wounds,
  • Prevention of nightblindness N/B: if not treated leads to degeneration (thinning of cornea i.e xerophthalmia and finally blindness)

Effects of cooking on Vit. A

Are insoluble in water so not lost by moist methods of cooking/soaking e.g boiling and steaming. –             Cooked vegetables, therefore have enough carotene just like raw ones.

VITAMIN D (Calciferol)

  • It is fat soluble,
  • Not lost in cooking water,
  • Human skin on exposure to sunlight synthesizes it,

Functions of Vitamin D in the body

  • Together with calcium and phosphorus, it is for strong bones and teeth,
  • It is for absorption of calcium and phosphorus from intestines,
  • Prevents rickets in children and osteomalaria in adults

Sources of Vit. D.

  • Fish liver oil,
  • Milk
  • Butter
  • Cheese
  • Eggs
  • Liver
  • Sunlight

Effects of heat Vit. D

Destroyed by heat

VITAMIN C (Ascorbic acid)

  • water soluble vitamin,
  • not stored in the body so enough amount has to be provided in diet,


  • for clear skin and healthy body tissues,
  • it helps in healing of wounds and fractures,
  • for healthy gums and teeth,
  • for proper growth of children,
  • to prevent scurvy


  • fruits
  • vegetables
  • oranges
  • grapes
  • strawberries
  • red currents
  • black currents
  • citrus fruits e.g lemons
  • vegetables e.g water cress

new potatoes



Effects of cooking on vitamin C

  • its water soluble so it is destroyed/lost during preparation and cooking,

N/B:- vegetables should be cooked quickly and served at once

  • should be cooked with a lid on because it is oxidized forming a useless substance, – N/B:- raw vegetables have the most Vit. C though some must be cooked for easy digestion,
  • Should be served with liquid used for cooking.


Vitamin B complex is water soluble.  Most important is B1 (Thiamine)

Deficiency leads to;

  • Loss of appetite
  • Poor health
  • Disorders of digestive system
  • Disorders of nervous system

Functions of Vit. B1 in the body

  • For release of energy from carbohydrates
  • Growth in children
  • For good health
  • Prevention of beriberi

Sources of B1 vitamin

  • whole grain cereals and their unpolished products,
  • bran and germ of grain
  • dark green and leafy vegetables
  • milk
  • liver
  • fish
  • eggs
  • yeast and yeast products oat meal pulses and nuts,

Effects of cooking Vit B

  • B1 is very soluble in cooking water,
  • Destroyed by alkalis in baking powder and bicarbonate of soda,
  • high temperature destroy it if it is in a pressure cooker/canning,

B3 (Nicotinic acid) niacin

Functions of B3

  • for releasing energy from carbohydrates,
  • for growth
  • good health of nervous system and skin
  • proper digestion

Sources of B3 Nicotinic acid Refer to B1 Vit.

Vitamin B12

Needed in small amounts

  • it is in food of animal origin.


(a) causes muscular cramps

N/B:- salt should always be replaced through foodstuff/added to cooking because it is lost continually in sweat and urine.

In hot weather it is needed more since it is lost in sweat

(b) Deficiency also leads to weight loss and loss of appetite

(c)  Leads to importance in men but rarely.



For health of skin


  • protein foods
  • green vegetables
  • onions
  • sodium chloride (common salt)
  • soyabean and eggs
  • meat
  • cabbage
  • dairy products


  • cause muscular cramps.

N/B:-      – should be replaced in foodstuff because it is lost daily.


Found in many foods;


Refer to sodium

N/B:- – is more important to muscles and blood cells than body fluids.

  • lost in urine and sweat



Acid/Alkaline medium

Vit. B B C are affected when cooking tough green vegetables.

  • sodium bicarbonate affects vegetables
  • softens them
  • brightens green colour


  • destroys Vit C and B, thiamine
  • others are not affected


  • Are water soluble

Precautions to take

  1. avoid soaking
  2. avoid washing after cutting it increases loss of nutrients,
  3. cook in very little water and serve in its soup and gravy,
  4. avoid throwing away liquid used for cooking because minerals also dissolve in it.


  • it is affected by air,
  • it easily oxidized i.e it combines with oxygen other substances formed are useless to the body,
  • N/B:- crushed vegetables, peeled fruits and vegetables shouldn’t be left open for long since Vitamins and minerals are lost,
  • To prevent this they should be covered or stood in water.

Principles of nutrient conservation

Rules for cooking fruits and vegetables

  • A sharp knife should be used,
  • The saucepan should have a good fitting lid and has to be clean
  • Avoid overcooking veges,
  • Don’t throw away the liquid used for cooking because it has the dissolved nutrients,
  • Shouldn’t be reheated but should just be cooked before serving, – Avoid bicarbonate of soda because it destroys Vit B and C.


  • most fruits are eaten raw though a few are cooked e.g


Bananas    – when making jam and cakes


Preparation and cooking of vegetables 

During preparation, serving and cooking there are rules that have to be followed.

Green leafy vegetables

  • damaged leaves and tough fibrous stalks should be cut and washed carefully in clean water
  • soak Brussels sprouts and cauliflower for 10 minutes, add salt to (i) reduce loss of nutrients, (ii) kill insects and then eggs
  • should be in running water of open leaf vegetables and if soaked, – should be cut/shredded according to type.

Cooking green vegetables

  • thrown use for soup, sauce/soup
  • should be prepared, cooked and served at once and not reheated, – avoid bicarbonate of soda and should not be boiled/cooled faster, –        Vitamin C and B will be destroyed.

Root vegetables

  • Scrub and remove skin by peeling/scraping thinly, most nutrients are found under the skin,
  • Use clean water to rinse, if not cooking immediately, keep under water to prevent discolouringly
  • Avoid wasting during preparation,
  • Young ones should be peeled thinly/scraped off thinly e.g potatoes and carrots. – Prepare just before cooking,

Cooking root vegetables

  • Can be boiled/cooked using conservative methods.
  • Root vegetables can be baked, fried/steamed,
  • N/B:- beetroot should neither be scraped/peeled, cover with cold water, simmer till skin is rubbed off,
  • Slice thinly cover with vinegar and serve with a salad,


Broad beans

  • Shell beans,
  • Boil 10-20 minutes fill tender,
  • Put in open dish coat with parsley sauce/toss in butter

Runner beans and French beans

  • wash well remove tips and any strings,
  • leave whole/cut in ½ if very long,
  • boil 101-5 till tender,
  • drain well, toss in butter,
  • serve in covered dish


  • shell peas and wash,
  • boil in salted water,
  • boil 10-15 min,
  • drain well serve in covered dish



can be fried grilled/served in a sauce  to fry

  • prepare mushroom by removing stalk and peeling off skin,
  • melt 30-60gm butter/margarine in a frying pan,
  • don’t allow them to brown fry gently 3-4cm, turn carefully fry 3-4 minute more, – serve in toast / to accompany fried bacon steak/chops,

To grill

  • prepare mushroom, place in grill pan side up,
  • brush with melted butter/margarine,
  • sprinkle salt and pepper on it


Why store food properly

To prevent spoilage and preserve nutrients.

Storage of milk

  • bottle has to be wiped/packet to be wiped with a damp piece,
  • should be placed in fridge shelf,
  • in absence of fridge,
  • boil milk, ii. cold and start in a basin of cold water iii. cover with a Muslim cloth tips in water

Storage of butter

  • put on a plastic butter bowl with a cover,
  • keep in the fridge,
  • if not fridge keep in a cool place,
  • g meat safe/charcoal


  • place on door rack of fridge,
  • if not fridge keep in energy tray in an airy place,


  • keep in its packet at bottom shelf of fridge.


  • wash divide in small portion (cooking portions)
  • wrap in polythene bags store in coolest part of fridge/freeze compartment, – if fried meat keep dry, protect from insects and other pests.


  • clean
  • wrap in polythene bags to prevent exchange of flavours with other food e.g milk,

Fruits and vegetables

  • should be in a clean airy store
  • avoid piling up fruits because it causes bruising and spoilage that spreads easily,
  • in absence of a fridge clean dry well pack in polythene bags to stops exchange of flavour e.g citrus fruits.
  • soft fruits should be covered and shouldn’t be done for long e.g cut water melon and avoiding prolonged storage of fruits e.g strawberries, grapes and melons,
  • fruits having acid e.g pineapples/lemon shouldn’t be stored near others because they affect them e.g milk goes rancid,
  • bananas shouldn’t be stored in the fridge because the blacker,
  • green peas should be in a polythene bag and must be blanched before storing in the fridge,
  • green leafy veges shouldn’t be stored for long and should be thoroughly cleaned before storing in the fridge,
  • in absence of a fridge should be sprinkled with water for not more than 24 hours,


Root vegetables

  • should be stored in a vegetable rack,
  • potatoes should be in an airy bag in a cool, dimly lit store,
  •  to prevent germination
  • to prevent turning green
  • to prevent getting spoilt
  • carrots, turnips and beet root should be cleared, dried and put in polythene bags and stored in lowest compartment of fridge,
  • unions, red and white should be in a vegetable rack,


Points to consider on storage

  • should be completely dry to prevent aflotoxin poisoning,
  • should be cleaned and stored in dry ventilated store,
  • should be cleared and treated properly with pesticides,

Conservative method of cooking 

  • should be prepared and cut depending on type
  • 500gm vegetables and 30gm marg = ½ litre water and ¾ teaspoon salt,
  • The saucepan should be large enough to hold vegetables and lid should be fitting, – Melt fat in saucepan sweat veges over gentle till fat has been absorbed add water,
  • Boil, add salt replace lid, – Simmer till tender
  • Serve in their own stock,
  • Garnish and serve,

N/B:- casserole method can be used to conserve more nutrients


  • Are dried seeds of leguminous plants e.g

. beans

. lentils

. peas

. soya beans

. grams

. groundnuts

They are used as vegetables in absence on vegetables/substitutes of animal protein

Cooking pulses (points to consider)

  • must be soaked
  • to soften outer coating
  • to reduce cooking time
  • to replace lost water

bicarbonate of soda should be added to soaking water to soften skin, pulses are used in meals and soups,

best served in sauce with added flavour.

e.g kikuyu water pulses, maize potatoes served with vegetables.

N/B:- nutrients in pulses are not easily lost


This is as a result of:

  1.  inadequate intake of a particular nutrient,
  2. excessive intake
  3. they body not being able to synthesize/utilize a particular nutrient.


– nutritional deficiency disease is a sign of malnutrition/poor nutrition that leads to poor health,

Causes of malnutrition 

1) Ignorance

  1. most people have little/lack knowledge of nutrition so loose a lot of nutrients during – preparation
  • cooking
  • storing food
  • some sell protein rich food e.g eggs to buy scones/nutritionally inferior food,
  1. food taboos and superstitious prohibit people from eating some foods e.g not allowing women to eat eggs and chicken plus children not being allowed to eat eggs and deny the body vital nutrients leading to malnutrition. So people should be educated on discarding superstitious and traditions.
  2. change of lifestyles people are not aware of amount of nutrients that are enough for the body e.g tend to eat more of proteins or starchy foods so leads to obesity, hypertension, diabetes, anorexia, nervosa gout.
  • Poverty

Incases where people have not income and no land to cultivate then they be malmarished because they will not have enough food to eat so will be malnourished.

  • Wars and natural calamities

Leads to food production falling during times of floods/drought/war hence famine occurs causing malnutrition.

  • Parasites

They reduce amount of nutrients in the body.

  • Body’s inability to utilize nutrients

Is because of inherited malfunction of a part of body that affects absorption of some nutrients.

Poor distribution of food

e.g inadequate transport services may cause poor distribution of food so some areas lack food.


The diseases are caused by

  1. i) inadequate intake of a given nutrient ii) excessive intake

Most common diseases are;

  1. marasmus
  2. goitre
  3. kwashiorkor
  4. anaemia
  5. scurvy
  6.  rickets
  7. esteomalaria
  8. beriberi
  9. pellagra
  10. eye problems
  11. dental flouroris



  • Caused be severe malnutrition when they get little protein in the diet,
  • It is common in children who stop breastfeeding easily/weaning, Why?
  • Protein in breast milk will not be provided and yet its not replaced

Symptoms of kwashiokor

  • Retarded growth height and weight below not normal for his age, where there is oedema weight may be normal
  • Dull child who is irritable and inactive
  • Hair is scanty, thin straight and brownish in colour,
  • Child will be anaemia since the protein is needed to synthesize red blood cells,
  • Swelling of face, hands and legs may spread to other parts of body, when swollen parts are pressed an impression of finger is left because muscles are stretched,
  • Affects development of the brain

Prevention of kwashiokor

  • Break feeding for long,
  • Feed warning baby’s on enough protein foods e.g milk, eggs, fish pulses,
  • Taking child for check up, toe to check for worms,
  • Poverty, ignorance, food taboos and dealing with nutritionally undesirable food habits
  • Baby’s and young children under 5 years to be taken for post natal clinic or for check up from doctor

Treatment of kwashiokor

  • Hospitality the child for diagnosis treatment and management,
  • Giving plenty of proteins till recovery if not severe,
  • Maintaining high standards of hygiene during handling and serving of food e.g to prevent complications like food poisoning, ingestation by worms etc.


  • Is because of total starvation where the body lacks all nutrients especially carbohydrates, therefore muscles become wasted and very thin,
  • Occurs at any age so long as intake of food is inadequate,
  • Weaning should always starts at age 4-6 months.


  • extreme weight loss (person is emaciated)
  • person has not subcutaneous fat and skin wrinkles around thigh and buttocks especially, retarded growth and body size doesn’t reflect eye to of person, a clearly seen oil cage,
  • wrinkles face that looks like an old persons,
  • head is bigger them rest of body,
  • protruding eyes,
  • child/person is alert or anxious
  • good appetite
  • anaemia and weakness


  • a balanced diet
  • medical attention
  • plenty of fresh fruit juices


  • caused by lack of iron/protein/both,
  • N/B:- iron and protein are used for formation of haemoglobin that transports oxygen in blood.

Groups of people who need plenty of this

  • Baby’s of beyond 6 months,

Because they are born with iron that lasts them for 6 month after this it has to provided in the diet,

  • Teenage girls
  • Women child bearing age other causes of anaemia,
  1. chronic malaria
  2. hookworm infestation
  3. severe loss of blood

Path that lead to anaemia

  • Internal/external

Loss of blood (haemorrhage)

It due to:-

  • Menstruation
  • Injury             – lead to anaemia
  • Childbirth


Reduced red blood cells

Due to;

  • weaning (early),
  • child lacks a special protein meant for formation of red blood cells,
  • poor balanced diet
  • lacking iron rich foods

increased reduction of red blood cells (haemolysis) Caused by:

    1. chronic malaria                         (lead to anaemia)
    2. ingestation with hookworm


  • pale/translucent
  • pale inside of eyelids
  • white nail bed
  • weakness and fatique
  • face and feet swollen
  • rapid heartbeat that leads to shortness of breath


  • foods rich in iron,
  • enough proteins and vitamins B and C,
  • consulting doctor because there are other causes of anaemia
  • taking iron tablets if severe


  • It due to lack of thiamine (Vit. B1)
  • Common among people who eat polished cereal grains and their products, (Asian countries because there diet is mainly polished rice)
  • Polishing removes thiamine

N/B:- also common in famine stricken areas was torn region and refugee camps


  • wet beri beri
  • dry beri beri N/B:- the two affect adults
  • infantile beri beri, it is in infants under 6 years,

Symptoms of wet beri beri

  • legs swell spread to face and trunk (oedema),
  • reduced urine volume because of retention of fluids,
  • pronounced heartbeat i.e pulse rate if faster than normal so chest pains are felt, N/B: – this can lead to heart failure and death if not treated.

Symptoms of dry beri beri

  • weakness and wasting away of muscles
  • numbness
  • feeling of pin pricks on feet and arms
  • difficulties in walking, kneeling and straightening up from squatting position.

Infantile beri beri

  • affects infants that don’t get enough amounts of Vit. B1 in breast milk and mother also lacks the Vit.


  • weaknesses
  • whiling cry of infants,
  • diarrhea,
  • vomiting
  • loss of body weight
  • child marasmus if not treated
  • oedema
  • convulsions
  • death if untreated


Eating foods rich in Vit. B1 (Thiamine) i.e

  • whole cereal grains and their products
  • leafy dark green vegetables
  • milk
  • meat


  • medical attention
  • a balanced diet – meals rich in Vit. B1



  • it is a disease of 3Ds

i.e  Dermatities



  • common where maize is staple food,
  • it is due to lack of miacin (Vit. B3) in diet

N/B:- people who eat whole grain and clear products rarely suffer from pellagra.


  • weight loss
  • weakness
  • mental depression
  • rough scaly skin that may burst into raw wounds exposing skin to the sun,
  • digestion problems leading to abdominal pain and diarrhea
  • mouth and tongue may be sore,
  • retarded growth
  • nervousness leading to anxiety irritability loss of memory and reduced sauce of tough,
  • may result to madness (dementia)


  • foods rich in Vit B2, nicotinic acid e.g liver, pulses, kidney, fish, milk and whole grain cereals.


Total blindness because of lack of Vit. A.


  • begins as night blindness
  • results to xerophthalmia
  • conjunctiva dies loses listre and acquires a smoky appearance,
  • ulcers form on cornea and leads to blindness if condition continues,


  • a balanced diet rich in Vit. A,
  • Keeping eyes clean
  • fresh the doctor


  • it is due to Vit. C
  • common among people who rarely eat fresh vegetables and fruits


  • swollen gums having week capillary that bleed,
  • stool that has blood same to urine; Why? because of ruptured capillary
  • unhealthy skin,
  • slow healing of wounds,
  • weaknesses


  • foods rich in Vit. C
  • avoiding artificial synthetic juices,
  • but encouraging eating fresh fruits, vegetables and juices.


  • it is the enlargement of the thyroid gland due to lack of iodine,


  • enlarged thyroid gland,
  • breathing and voice interfered with a lot of trembling and nervousness,
  • for pregnant mothers they may give birth to mentally retarded children
  • bulging out of eyes


  • iodine rich foods e.g sea foods and iodized
  • salt
  • removing through surgery of hard goiters



  • it is common in children
  • bones soften, bend and deform
  • caused by Vit. D deficiency because of poor diet / lack of sunlight, N/B:- Vit. D is important for absorption of calcium that forms bones.


  • chest, pelvis and spine deformed,
  • bend leg bones (knock knees/bow legs)
  • enlarged joints,
  • poor teeth development


  • giving mineral and vitamin at early age,
  • eating Vit. D, calcium and phosphorous foods,
  • getting enough sunlight so that the skin can synthesis Vit. D.


  • it is like rickets but affects adults,
  • bones become fragile, weak and brittle because of lack of Vit D,
  • its common in women who have close births and lack Vit D, calcium and phosphorous Symptoms
  • fractures are common
  • deformed pelvis that interferes with walking,
  • twitching of face and hand muscles


  • a diet rich in Vit. D, calcium and phosphorous
  • consulting doctor if severe



An obese person is someone who weighs more than 20% above maximum recommended weight for sex and height.


  • dietary
  • genetic
  • hormonal
  • mental disorder

it has risks of high blood pressure, and heart diseases.


  • excessive weight
  • extremely fat body for age


  • reducing intake of energy giving foods but eating a balanced diet,
  • doing physical exercises

High blood pressure

  • leads to strokes, heart and kidney diseases,
  • N/B:- fat people are likely to be hypertensive


  • Frequent headaches,
  • Pounding of heart and shortness (loss of breath after a mild exercise)
  • Weakness and dizziness
  • Pain in left shoulder and chest


  • Losing weight
  • Starches and fatty foods/with a lot of sugar to be avoided,
  • Eating foods with little/not salt
  • Consulting a doctor


  • It is caused by body’s inability to control level of glucose in blood by use of insulin hormone.

Signs and symptoms 

  • Continued thirst
  • Frequent urination and a lot of urine passed out
  • Tiredness
  • Itching and long term skin infection.

Symptoms of severe cases

  • loss of weight
  • numbness/pain in hands and feet,
  • sore on feet that don’t heal
  • unconsciousness

Adult onset diabetes

Diabetes is influential by the following factors

  • genetic factors,
  • age affects people over 40 years,
  • obesity,
  • carbohydrates intolerance during pregnancy

Types of diabetes 

  1. Chemical diabetes

Its characteristic of abnormal glucose tolerance test with no symptoms of diabetes.

  1. Gestational diabetes

Abnormality of glucose tolerance seen during 1st and 2nd trimester of pregnancy.

  • Pediabetes

A period in a patient life from birth till recognition of the carbohydrates intolerance by latest available techniques.



  • having a regulated programme of exercises.
  • maintaining personal hygiene
  • eating a diet rich in proteins to provide enough nutrients for maintenance of weight that will keep blood sugar almost normal level.
  • giving insulin tablets/injection but depends on type of diabetes.

Anorexia nervosa

  • it is psychological eating disorder called the “slimmers disease” that affects mostly teenage girls.
  • the sufferers becomes so keen to slim so makes herself;
  1. i) hate food/detest food, ii)starves herself

iii) become severely underweight

N/B:- This condition can go on for several years and normal pattern may never be gained again.  Therefore it may lead to a condition called bulimia.


  • occurs when intake energy doesn’t meet the requirements of the body, common among people who are ;
    1. very active
    2. tense
    3. nervous
    4. who get little rest

Causes of inadequate caloric/energy intake

  • irregular eating habits
  • poor selection of food
  • psychological factors that cause eating of too little food that leads to severe weight loss hence anorexia nervosa.


  • very poor appetite
  • gastro-intestinal disturbances having the following symptoms.
    1. Nausea
    2. Vomiting
    3. Diarrhea
    4. Hyperthyroidism (increased metabolic rate)


  • Eating a balanced diet,
  • Increased intake of energy foods (caloric intake) starting with small amounts increase day by day till caloric level is normal,
  • Increasing protein mineral and vitamin amount in diet,
  • Small frequent feeding.


It is called the disease of the king,

  • It is a form of arthritis i.e means an inflammation of a joint


  • Uric acid
  • Amino acids (final breakdown of acid) e.g redment, animal organ meat, kidney and liver)
  • Chicken eggs, milk, beans, pork and sardines (fish),
  • Cheese and eggs though have low quality of amino acids,
  • N/B:- Uric acid of normal amount always dissolves in blood them is passed out through waste by kidney.
  • It causes gout if its level in blood and body fluids is higher than normal.
  • Uric acid crystals being in joint and tenders,
  • The body immune system and white cells fighting these crystals and releasing a chemical that cause;
    1. severe irritation
    2. inflammation
    3. acute pain
    4. gout (swelling)

N/B:- Gout occurs mostly in men. Women get it at menopause because the female hormone that is to protect them is low

  • its associated with diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, high levels of cholesterol in blood, diabetes, kidney diseases and sickle cell anaemia.


  • sudden and explosive pain that makes the person at night,
  • a lot of pain in big toe, hot, swollen and tender,
  • shiny skin that has dilated veins


Causes of the attacks

  • excess of meat
  • joint injury
  • dehydration
  • excess alcohol ingestion
  • sudden severe illness


has no cure but can be controlled and managed by;

  • use of painkillers during pain,

N/B:- avoiding asprin it makes level of uric acid increased

  • applying crushed ice pack on affected joint to sooth and make place numb,
  • not eating a lot of animal protein e.g red meat, kidney liver, sardines,
  • foods with prune should be reduced to one serving 5 days a week,
  • giving raw vegetables and fruits,
  • a lot of fruits to remove the prunes,
  • a lot water to prevent formation of kidney stones
  • avoiding alcohol,
  • losing weight
  • excess kits e.g niasin, B complex, Vitamins A should be avoided,
  • not hurting oneself/striking a joint,
  • avoiding tight shoes


  • It is enriching of food by addition of one/more nutrients to it whether the nutrient is in the food/not,
  • this is done to add nutritional value to the product,
  • macro-micro nutrients are added to commonly eaten foods to;
    1. maintain their quality
    2. improve quality

e.g of micro-nutrients (a) Vitamins

(b) Trace elements

The two are added in food for proper functioning of physiological and immunological aspects of human body.

Macro nutrients include basic nutrients element of a diet; i.e (i) proteins  (ii) carbohydrates

(iii) fats

Most nutrients that are fortified are ones that are not found in good amounts in the diet e.g Research has shown that Vitamin A, Iodine and iron lacks in most regions.  Therefore cause the related disorders.

Reasons for food fortification

To get rid of nutritional deficiencies,

N/B:- factors to consider when choosing the food to be fortified with a certain nutrient;

  • target groups
  • consumption level i.e has to be one that is regularly consumed.
  • The amounts of foods that are to be fortified in Kenya are very minimum.

Foods commonly fortified (a) Margarine

It is a vegetable fat.  It is fortified with milk, Vit A i.e synthetic retinon and B carotene, Vit D.  content of Vit. in it is equal to butters.

(b) Breakfast cereals

  • fortified with vitamins
  • minerals e.g iron and calcium and
  • proteins
  • fruit juices and soft drinks (some)

Vitamin C  lost during processing and storage.

  • Common salt

Has iodine added to prevent goitre

  • Bread and floor
  • vitamins and minerals
  • flavourings
  • preservatives

N/B:- The food and drug act law on which modern food law are derived always lay principles that food should be fit.

  • for human consumption and free from health hazards,
  • additives must be of a natural substance and of quality,
  • quality of food must be maintained,
  • listing of ingredients and proper description of the product,

N/B:- The law protects consumers ensuring they buy wholesome food, uncontaminated quality and with proper descriptions


  • Most additions of nutrient are for safeguarding public health,
  • Additions may also be done by main factors to reduce loss that it caused by bacteria, pests and rodents, and decay,

N/B: Food processing has become complicated so should always be checked to safeguard the consumer,