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SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND

SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND:A.SULPHUR (S) Sulphur is an element in Group VI(Group 16)of the Periodic table . It has atomic number 16...

CARBON AND ITS COMPOUND

WATER AND HYDROGEN

FUELS IN THE HOME

FUELS IN THE HOME

Fuel is any material used for producing heat/energy.

Uses of heat:

  • cooking
  • heating
  • lighting

 lighting 

Types of fuel

  • Wood
  • Charcoal
  • Paraffin
  • Electricity
  • Biogas
  • Solar energy
  • Coal
  • Saw dust
  • Coffee husks
  • Maize cobs
  • Farm produce straws
  • Wood shavings

Wood 

Use

  • cooking
  • heating
  • lighting
  • security
  • abrasive (wood ash)
  • preservative for grains and poles

Advantages 

  • it is readily available in rural areas,
  • relatively cheap,
  • doesn’t require expensive equipment to use,

Disadvantages 

  • hard to collect during rainy season,
  • it is bulky so a lot of storage space,
  • can cause desertification incase of excessive tree cutting,
  • it produces soot and smoke if not dry especially that blackens cooking utensils and ceilings,

FUELS IN THE HOME

Precautions to take when using wood

  • should be dry to avoid too much smoke that irritates eyes and respiratory system,
  • should be cut into reasonable sizes for convenience and avoiding accidents,
  • should not be ones that flickers because it can cause fires and burns,
  • shouldn’t be from trees, shrubs and other places that are poisonous – should be stored in a dry place

Charcoal

Uses 

  • cooking
  • heating
  • ironing
  • for making charcoal coolers

Advantages

  • it can be used in many ways e.g cooking, heating and an abrasive
  • if good it doesn’t produce smoke,
  • its ash can be used as an abrasive

Disadvantages

  • can lead to desertification if trees are cut down excessively,
  • can also lead to air pollution,

NB: it has become unavailable and expensive

  • it is not clean in use and storage
  • it produces smoke and blackens utensils if not well burnt,
  • it can cause suffocation and death if used in a non ventilated room due to co-production, – it is not readily available in some areas,

Precautions to take when using charcoal

  • should be used in a well ventilated room,
  • should be stored in a dry place
  • don’t dispose burning charcoal where it can cause fire e.g on dry vegetation or near inflammable material,

FUELS IN THE HOME

Gas 

Uses 

  • used for heating, cooking, lighting and ironing

Advantages 

  • its clean in use,
  • its portable
  • it is quick to light and easy to use

Disadvantages 

  • its poisonous and can explode if heating,
  • if left to leak can explode when lit and can cause poisoning
  • it has not gauge to show when its finishing,
  • expensive
  • not always available

Precautions to take when using gas

  • not lighting in case of any smell in the room, it should be checked and fault rectified and any escaped gas should be allowed to escape first,
  • all equipment should be serviced regularly to avoid leakage,
  • turning off when it is not in use to avoid accident,
  • using in a well ventilated room
  • placing cylinders in a lockable place

Paraffin 

  • used for cooking, heating lighting refrigerators,
  • also used as a solvent for grease stains removal,

Advantages 

  • fairly affordable
  • readily available,
  • it is quick to light and easy to use,
  • can be stored easily

Disadvantages 

  • can cause fire if used carelessly,
  • produces soot that blacken equipment,
  • has unpleasant smell

FUELS IN THE HOME

Precautions to take when using paraffin

  • shouldn’t be stored in soda bottles because children may take it and be poisoned,
  • should be stored away from foodstuff,
  • containers to be labelled to avoid wrong use,
  • should be kept away from children and open fires,
  • the containers having paraffin should have fitting lids to avoid spillage that can cause accidents,

Electricity

  • used for lighting, heating, cooking and ironing and run household equipment and appliances e.g T.V, washing machines, vacuum cleaners and cookers,

Advantages

  • its clean and quick in use,
  • doesn’t require storage space,

Disadvantages

  • not available regularly
  • expensive to install, use and maintain,
  • appliances are costly

Precautions to take when using electricity

  • wires to be well insulated to avoid accidents,
  • not overloading sockets,
  • maintain in equipment skills,
  • not allowing children to poke sockets with objects like metallic ones,
  • putting off when not in use,
  • not handling switches with wet hands to prevent shock,

Biogas

  • Its obtained by decomposing organic waste e.g animal during in a specially constructed unit,
  • when this waste decomposes it produces biogas (methane gas) its then passed through pipes to prints of use,

Uses

  • heating
  • cooking
  • lighting
  • ironing

Advantages

  • clean
  • Cheap to produce and sustain with continued availability of animal waste
  • It is easy to produce in rural areas because animals/organic waste is plenty

Disadvantages

  • Cost of installing production unit is expensive though once installed it becomes negligible,
  • If gas leaks it can explode and cause fires and burns when ignited,
  • Has a bad smell so must be in a well ventilated room,

FUELS IN THE HOME

Precautions to take when using

  • not lighting in case of any smell in the room, it should be checked and fault rectified and any escaped gas should be allowed to escape first,
  • all equipment should be serviced regularly to avoid leakage,
  • turning off when it is not in use to avoid accident,
  • using in a well ventilated room
  • placing cylinders in a lockable place

Solar energy

its from sun, used for lighting, heating and drying, may also be converted to electrical energy through solar panels, which absorb sunlight and convert it to electricity.  The electricity is stored in solar batteries that may be used for lighting, heating, cooking and running machines and appliances, Advantages

  • its can be renewed and is readily available,
  • it is cheap to produce and no cost apart from installation,
  • it is clean and quick to use, – doesn’t need much storage space,
  • it can be produced even in rural areas where there is not electricity

FUELS IN THE HOME

ALL HOMESCIENCE NOTES FORM 1-4 WITH TOPICAL QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

PRIMARY NOTES, SCHEMES OF WORK AND EXAMINATIONS

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