Monday, July 22, 2024

LANJET PRE-MOCKS TERM 1 2024 QUESTIONS & ANSWERS.

LANJET PRE-MOCKS TERM 1 2024 QUESTIONS &...

EXTENDED HOLIDAY ASSIGNMENTS TERM 1 2024 FORM 3 Q&A.

EXTENDED HOLIDAY ASSIGNMENTS TERM 1 2024 FORM...

EXTENDED HOLIDAY ASSIGMENTS FORM 2 TERM 1 2024.

EXTENDED HOLIDAY ASSIGMENTS FORM 2 TERM 1...

Become a member

Get the best offers and updates relating to Liberty Case News.

― Advertisement ―

spot_img

SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND

SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND:A.SULPHUR (S) Sulphur is an element in Group VI(Group 16)of the Periodic table . It has atomic number 16...

CARBON AND ITS COMPOUND

WATER AND HYDROGEN

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE:PARTS OF SPEECH

NOUNS

  • COMMON NOUNS
  • They are simply words that name people, places, things, or ideas.
  • They are not the actual names.
  • The word ‘teacher’ is a common noun, but the word ‘Halima’ is not.
  • A common noun identifies a thing, etc.
  • Example of common nouns are:
  • People: teacher, father, secretary, woman, girl, etc
  • Animals: Tiger, Dog, Cow, etc
  • Things: Chair, desk, cup, phone, etc
  • Places: City, town, continent, etc
  • Ideas: envy, hate, love, pride, etc

How to Capitalize Common Nouns

The simple rule is: don’t capitalize a common noun, unless it is the first word in a sentence, or part of a title.

Examples in Sentences

  • Let’s go to that hotel.
  • I visit a town during the holidays.

Exercise

Substitute the underlined word(s) with a common noun. You can add a word before the noun.

  1. John and Nick were taught.
  2. I have visited Asia.
  3. She lives in Nairobi.
  4. We eat at the Hilton.
  5. Have you ever swum in the Nile?
  6. I drive Mercedes Benz.
  7. Everyone went shopping at Tuskys.
  8. Corporal Jones has died.
  9. I come from Rwanda.
  10. I am teach at Alliance.

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

PROPER NOUNS

  • A proper noun is a name used for an individual person, thing, or a place.
  • They always begin in capital letters no matter where they occur in sentences.
  • Look at the table below.
Common Noun Proper Noun Example in a Sentence
Teacher

President

 

City

Mr. Kamau

Mr. Uhuru Kenyatta

 

Mombasa

Mr. Kamau is our teacher of English.

Mr Uhuru Kenyatta is in the state house.

Mombasa is the place I go every weekend.

 

Exercise

Identify proper nouns in the sentences below.

  1. I will take you to Rich’s Palace.
  2. Sarah is the girl I told you about.
  3. Of all the continents, I like Africa the most.
  4. Gracy is the cutest kitten ever.
  5. I am craving Oreos.
  6. I used Tilly in cooking.
  7. Jupiter is one of the planets.
  8. Margaret was a great author.

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

CONCRETE AND ABSTRACT NOUNS

Concrete Nouns

  • A concrete noun register to our senses.
  • You can see, hear, taste, smell, or even feel them.
  • The examples are:
  • Table
  • Ball
  • House
  • Rice
  • Water
  • Wool

 Abstract Nouns

  • They don’t register to one’s senses.
  • They are just ideas, feelings, or qualities.
  • Some examples of abstract nouns include:
  • Health
  • Interest
  • Sleep
  • Traffic
  • Advice
  • Education
  • Business
  • Insurance
  • Happiness
  • Peace
  • Knowledge
  • History
  • Noise
  • Intelligence
  • Anger
  • Fun
  • Pride
  • Confidence
  • Determination
  • Law
  • Laughter

Example in Sentences

  • Education is the key to life.
  • All the teacher wanted was a proof.
  • I will apply once the opportunity presents itself.
  • They are calling for justice.
  • You need to change your behaviour.
  • Love makes the world go round.

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

Exercise 1

Identify the nouns in the sentences and write whether it they are concrete or abstract.

  1. A man must always have the courage to face every challenge.
  2. No matter what happens, we must not lose hope.
  3. My faith in God is very strong.
  4. A person should buy a beautiful dress.
  5. Have you seen the black dog?
  6. Love is blind.

Exercise 2

Fill the blank with the appropriate form of the word in brackets.

  1. She asked for my _______________ about this book. (advise)
  2. The _________________ in Kenya is not as good as it was 10 years ago. (educate)
  3. The way she answers questions shows she has above average _____________. (intelligent)
  4. She explained the ________________ of physical exercise. (important)
  5. _____________ means different things to different people. (happy)
  6. ___________ is all that will help. (confident)
  7. It is _______________ that comes before a fall. (proud)
  8. His ______________ led him to kill Ojwang. (angry)
  9. The composition she wrote showed a high level of ______________. (imagine)
  10. You will die out of ___________. (lonely)
  • COUNT AND NON COUNT NOUNS

A concrete noun can either be categorized as count or non-count.

Count Nouns

  • A count noun can be expressed in plural form, normally with an “-s”, for example,
  • Season – seasons
  • Dog – dogs
  • Teacher – teachers
  • When you look around the classroom, there are things that you can count. What are they? The list of things you can probably see are:
  • Chairs
  • Tables
  • Flag
  • Textbooks
  • Desks
  • Cups
  • Such nouns can be preceded by appropriate articles, whether singular or plural.

Non-Count Nouns

  • Also referred to as mass nouns.
  • Nouns falling under this category are those:
  • That cannot be counted
  • That do not have plural forms.
  • Below are the examples of non-count nouns.
  • Luggage
  • Weather
  • Equipment
  • Oxygen
  • Wood
  • Plastic
  • Hair
  • Air
  • Milk
  • Juice
  • Beer
  • Soccer
  • Biology
  • Reading
  • Glass
  • Sunshine
  • Rice
  • History
  • News
  • Mathematics
  • Electricity
  • Meat
  • Furniture

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

Examples in Sentences

  1. This is school equipment.
  2. Plastic is a non conductor.

PLURAL NOUNS

  • There are rules for spelling plural nouns.

General Rules for Spelling Plural Nouns

  1. Most nouns add “-s”, for example
  • Book – books
  • Pen – pens
  • Phone – phones
  1. Most nouns that end in “-ch”, “-sh”, “-s”, “-x”, or “-z” add “-ies”, for example,
  • Church – churches
  • Box – boxes
  • Prize – prizes
  • Bus – buses
  1. Most nouns that end in a consonant and “-y” becomes “-ies”, for example,
  • Spy – spies
  • Community – communities
  • Activity – activities
  • Country – countries
  1. Most nouns that end in “-f”, or “-fe” add “-ves”, for example,
  • Elf – elves
  • Wolf – wolves
  • Half – halves
  • Knife – knives
  • Scarf – scarves
  1. Some nouns that end in a consonant and “o”, add “-es”, for example,
  • Tomato – tomatoes
  • Buffalo – buffaloes
  • Volcano – volcanoes
  • Hero – heroes
  • Mosquito – mosquitoes
  1. Some nouns only change their vowels, for example,
  • Goose – geese
  • Man – men
  • Mouse – mice
  • Tooth – teeth

There are those that do not change at all, for example,

  • Deer
  • Species
  • Fish
  • Sheep
  • There are a few nouns that have plural forms which are left from old English, for example,
  • Child – children
  • Ox – oxen
  • Then there are those of Latin origin. They are like:
  • Antenna – antennae
  • Appendix – appendices, appendixes
  • Cactus – cacti
  • Stadium – stadia, stadiums
  • Terminus – termini, terminuses
  • Referendum – referenda, referendums
  • Index – indices, indexes
  • Formula – formulae, formulas
  • Curriculum – curricula, curriculums

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

ARTICLES

  • An article is a kind of adjective.
  • It is used with a noun and gives some information about that noun.
  • There are two articles:
  • A
  • The
  • The article “a” has a form “an”.
  • Article “a” is known as the indefinite article. It is called indefinite since the noun it goes with is indefinite or general.
  • The form “an” is used when the noun it precedes begins with a vowel.
  • The article “a” has the same meaning as number “one”. For example, one can say:

I have bought a pen. Or

I have bought one pen.

  • The article “the” is definite article.
  • A definite article indicates a specific thing. Can you identify the difference between the pair of sentences below?
  • I bought a pen.
  • I bought the pen.

The second sentence shows that I bought a particular pen, and not any other.

  • The article “the” is used with count nouns when:
  • We use the noun a second and subsequent times.
  • The listener knows what you are referring to.

Exercise

Fill in the blank with appropriate article. Leave the space blank if no article is needed.

  1. I have to eat ______________ apple today.
  2. She has __________ dog at home.
  3. My son has learnt how to play __________ piano.
  4. Tom likes to play ______________ basketball.
  5. There is ___________ new book on the table.
  6. ___________ teacher is late this morning.
  7. ___________ ink in my pen is black.
  8. She speaks _________ Japanese.
  9. What ___________ expensive bike!
  10. He is _____________ honest person.

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

 PRONOUNS

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

  • They represent specific people or things.
  • They are used depending on:
  • Number: whether singular or plural
  • Person: whether first, second, or third persons
  • Gender: whether male, female, or neuter
  • Case : whether in the case of subject or object

Number versus Person

Number First Person Second Person Third Person
Singular I

 

You He/she/it
Plural We

 

You They

Gender versus Person

Person                             Gender
Male Female Neuter
First person      
Second person      
Third person He She It

Case

  • The pronouns used as subjects are:
  • I
  • We
  • He
  • She
  • It
  • They
  • You
  • The pronouns below are used as objects:
  • Me
  • Us
  • Him
  • Her
  • It
  • You
  • Them

Examples in Sentences

  • I like it.
  • You are my best friend.
  • She is running from the truth.
  • Get me that book please.
  • They are interviewing them.

Exercise 1

Fill the blanks with correct forms of pronouns in brackets.

  1. __________ am the new class prefect. (me)
  2. ___________ doesn’t matter. (they)
  3. Does Martha like ____________? (he)
  4. Killion helped ___________. (I)
  5. Did you see ___________ ? (she)

Exercise 2

Replace the underlined words with an appropriate pronoun.

  1. The old gate doesn’t look good.
  2. Tom and Mary went to school.
  3. The dog bit the doctor and the chief.
  4. Moses runs faster than Rebecca.
  5. Phiona and Ruth played doubles.
  6. Christine is clever.
  7. I brought the dress.
  8. Antony drove Junet and me.

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

  • We use possessive pronouns to refer to a specific person or people, or thing or things that belong to a person or people, or things.
  • Just like personal pronouns, they are used depending on:
  • Number
  • Person
  • Gender
  • Case

Number  and Person

  • In singular we use:

Mine – first  Person

Yours  — second person

His/hers/its – third person

  • In plural, use:

Ours – first person

Yours – second person

Theirs – third person

Gender

  • For male gender, the pronoun below are used:

His

  • For female gender use, hers

Case

A possessive pronoun can either be a subject or object.

Examples in Sentences

  • Mine is that one.
  • This one is mine.
  • The cars are yours.
  • Yours are those ones over there.
  • Hers has been stolen.
  • This building is ours.

Exercise

Complete each sentence with the possessive pronoun form of the word(s) underlined.

  1. Martha did _____________ homework in time.
  2. Have you got ___________ money.
  3. I like your name. Do you like ___________ ?
  4. Hector and Emmy have seen your bag. Have you seen ____________?
  5. Jane, my flowers are dying. ____________ are good.
  6. I have come with my sister. ___________ name is Alice.
  7. Sophie and Gerges study Science. _____________ teacher is kind.
  8. We love __________ new boss.
  9. He is in __________ house.
  10. Are you and your friend enjoying __________ weekend?
  11. The cat has bit ___________ tail.
  12. Right has a brother. ___________ is 10 years old.

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

 REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

  • They are special kind of pronouns.
  • A reflexive pronoun is used when the object of a sentence is the same as the subject.
  • Each personal pronoun has its own reflexive form.
  • The table below shows personal pronouns with their equivalent reflexive pronouns.
Personal Pronoun Reflexive Pronoun
I Myself
You (singular) Yourself
You (plural) Yourselves
He Himself
She Herself
It Itself
We Ourselves
They Themselves

 

When Reflexive Pronouns are Used

Reflexive pronouns are used when:

  • The object and the subject are similar. For example,
  • She bit herself.

The subject she and the object herself are similar.

  • They betrayed
  • Matthew likes himsel
  • They are used as the object of prepositions. In the sentences below, the words underlined are the prepositions and the ones in boldface are the objects of those prepositions.
  • Young bought a pencil for himself.
  • Halima mopped the room by herself.
  • The mad man talks to himself.
  • They are also used when emphasizing the subjects. Examples
  • I ate all the rice myself. This means no one else had any.
  • Dan will wash the clothes himself. This means she will be helped by no one.

Can you differentiate between the pair of sentences below?

She bought the pen herseif.

She bought the dress for herself.

Exercise

Fill the correct form of reflexive pronoun for each blank space.

  1. In the evening, we went to the market to buy _________________ food to cook.
  2. I don’t know whether they went to school or whether they taught ______________ .
  3. If you hurt ______________ , don’t cry to anyone.
  4. This cat caught the rat _____________ .
  5. Whenever I see ___________ in a mirror, I smile to ___________ .
  6. That little duck is washing _____________ in the pond.
  7. Jonathan ate all the food _____________ .
  8. Good evening everyone? Please make _____________ comfortable.
  9. Since the school is their father’s, they give _______________ break whenever they feel like.
  10. Mary bought the dress for _____________ .

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

FUNCTIONS OF PRONOUNS

  • A pronoun can be used where a noun or a noun phrase can be used in a sentence.
  • Pronouns perform the following functions in a sentence:
  • As the Subject of a Verb
  • The subject of verb is that which performs that action.
  • Some of the pronouns used as subjects of the verbs are:

He

She

I

They

We etc

Examples in Sentences

  1. He is my best friend.
  2. You are the one I saw.
  • They are the school administrators.

 

  • As the Object of A Verb
  • An object is the recipient of the action.
  • Some object pronouns include:

Me

You

Him

Her

Them

It etc

Examples in Sentences

  1. Richard escorted him.
  2. He separated them.
  • I saw her.
  • As the Object of a preposition

An object of preposition immediately follows the preposition.

Examples

  1. I will think about it.
  2. I bought it for him.

VERBS

  • A verb is a word that shows an action, state, or even an occurrence.
  • There are two main verb types:
  • Lexical verbs
  • Auxiliary verbs
  • In this section, we shall study Lexical verbs.

LEXICAL VERBS

  • A lexical verb is the main verb in a sentence.
  • It does not need a helping verb as it carries the meaning.
  • The examples are:
  • Talk
  • Sing
  • Run
  • Jump
  • Eat
  • Go etc
  • Depending on how they form their past tense and past participle forms, they are grouped as regular or irregular verbs.

Examples in Sentences

  1. I work at the station.
  2. She drives a fancy car.
  3. I gave you all I had.

REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS

  • Verbs are subdivided into regular and irregular verbs depending on how their past tense and past participles are formed.
  • A regular verb adds –ed or –d to the end of the base forms.

Examples of Regular Verbs

Verb Past Tense Past Participle
Call

Plan

Jump

Kill

Fill

Called

Planned

Jumped

killed

filled

Called

Planned

Jumped

Killed

filled

 

 

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

Examples In Sentences

  1. He jumped over the fence.
  2. He killed the cat.
  • For Irregular verbs, there is no formula that predict their past tense and past participle forms.
  • They include:
Verb Past Tense Past Participle
Sweep

Cut

Come

Go

Meet

Is/am

Swept

Cut

Came

Went

Met

Was

Swept

Cut

Came

Went

Met

Been

 

Examples in Sentences

  1. He ran towards the river.
  2. Have you repaid the loan?
  3. I have swum.

TENSES

SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

  • The simple present tense is used to express:
  1. Habitual actions, for example,
  2. She eats fish.
  3. She washes her clothes every week.
  4. We see movies every evening.
  5. Some general truths, for example,
  6. Water boils at 100 degrees.
  7. The month of April has 30 days.

Points to Remember on The Simple Present Third Person Singular

  • The verb usually ends in –s, for example,
  1. He runs
  2. She runs
  • It runs
  • Negative and question are “does”, for example,
  1. He does not run.
  2. Does he run?
  • She does not run.
  1. Does she run?
  • In case of negative and question, the next verb after “does” does not add an -s

Present Simple Tense – Negative

A negative sentence is usually formed by using “not”.

Examples in Sentences

  1. I do not like it.
  2. We do not like it.
  3. You do not like it.
  1. She does not like it.
  2. He does not like it.
  3. They do not like it.

Present Simple Tense – Questions

The questions are formed  by using either “do” or “does” at the beginning.

Examples in Sentences

  1. Do you like it?
  2. Do we like it?
  3. Do you like it?
  1. Does she like it?
  2. Does he like it?
  3. Do they like it?

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

Exercise 1

Rewrite each sentence below following the instruction in brackets. Do not change the meaning of the sentence.

  1. I live in Maragua. (begin with: do)
  2. Right comes to school daily. (begin: does)
  3. She does not play rugby. (do not use: not)
  4. The train leaves at 8.00 am. (use: 9.00 am)
  5. Does he forget his wallet? (begin: he)

Exercise 2

Use the correct form of the verb in brackets to complete each of the following sentences.

  1. I ______________ fifteen years old now. (be)
  2. Moureen ______________ at Githurai. (live)
  3. Emilly ___________ dinner for them. (cook)
  4. The students ____________ lunch at 1.00 pm. (eat)
  5. My grandmother ____________ medicine when she is sick. (take)
  6. It normally ____________ here in April. (rain)
  7. It _____________ in May as much as it does in March. (rain)
  8. They ___________ French twice a week. (study)
  9. Mr Gregory ______________ Geography at Lukenya High School.
  10. George _____________ to church every Sunday. (go)

SIMPLE PAST TENSE

  • A simple past tense is used to talk about a completed action in a time before now.
  • The time of action can be in the recent past or the distant past.

Examples

  1. I walked all the way to school.
  2. We saw them at the restaurant.
  3. They played the piano.
  4. She ate her lunch at 1.00 pm.

How to Form the Simple Past Tense

Simple Past in Negative Statement

The pattern here is:

Subject+Auxiliary+not

She did not call.

Simple Past in Interrogative

Did she call you?

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

Exercise

Fill in the correct form of word in brackets to complete each sentence.

  1. I ______________ to the theatre last week. (go)
  2. It _________ interesting. (be)
  3. I __________ three sites last year. (visit)
  4. It ____________ as it did the the previous week. (rain)
  5. She ____________ a single card from her relatives.(receive)
  6. We ___________ to a new house last month. (move)
  7. They ____________ us pizza yesterday. (bring)
  8. I ____________ a big lion. (see)
  9. Where _______________ your last weekend? (spend/you)
  10. It was cold, so  I _________________ off my coat. (take)
  11. Since the door was opened, the bird _____________ into the house.
  12. The car wasn’t expensive. It _____________ very much. (cost)

ADJECTIVES

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS

Comparatives

The comparative form of an adjective is used to compare  two people or things. Example

He is quicker than Ngure.

Superlatives

The superlative form of an adjective is used to compare more than two people or things. Example

He is the quickest of the three.

Ways of Making Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

  • Adjectives with One Syllable

In general, if an adjective has one syllable, then –er  or –r for comparative and –est  or –st for supelatives are added to the adjective. Examples

Adjective Comparative Form Superlative Form
Hot

Tall

Small

Large

Thin

Nice

Hotter

Taller

Smaller

Larger

Thinner

Nicer

Hottest

Tallest

Smallest

Largest

Thinnest

Nicest

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

  • Adjectives with Two Syllables
  • There are those that simply add –er or –r for comparative, and –est or –st for superlative. Examples
  1. Feeble Feebler   Feeblest
  • some use theword “more” for comparative, and “most” for superlative forms. Examples
  1. famous more famous      most famous
  • There are those that can do with either ­–er or –r , or more for comparative and –est or –st , or most for superlative. They are special adjectives.Examples
  1. Clever Cleverer  (more clever)   Cleverest (most clever)
  2. Simple Simpler (more simple)   Simplest (most simple)
  • Other special adjectives are:
  • Quiet
  • Polite
  • Pleasant
  • Likely
  • Commonly
  • Sure
  • Adjectives with Three or More Syllables

Word more  for comparative and most for superlatives are used. Examples

Interesting   moreinteresting   most interesting

Attractive     more attractive    most attractive

  • Irregular adjectives

Some adjectives have Irregular comparative and superlative forms. Examples

Adjective Comparative Form Superlative Form
Bad

Good

Little

Much

Worse

Better

Less

More

Worst

Best

Least

Most

 

 REGULAR AND IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

  • The way an adjective make comparative and superlative forms is what determines whether it is regular or irregular.

Regular Adjectives

  • A regular adjective adds –er or more in comparative form, and –est or most for superlatives.
  • The table below illustrates this.
Adjective Comparative Superlative
Small

Nice

Pretty

Beautiful

Smaller

Nicer

Prettier

More beautiful

 

Smallest

Nicest

Prettiest

Most beautiful

Irregular Adjectives

  • They have completely different forms.
  • It is not easy to predict their comparative and superlative forms.
  • Examples are:
  • Good
  • Bad etc

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

GRADABLE AND NON GRADABLE ADJECTIVES

Gradable Adjectives

  • A gradable adjective has different degrees.
  • You can say “very hot” or “a bit hot”. Hot is therefore a gradable adjective. Other gradable adjectives are:
  • Cold
  • Warm
  • Tall
  • Nice etc
  • There are grading adverbs that can be used with gradable adjectives. They include:
  • A bit
  • Very
  • Extremely
  • Quite
  • Really
  • So etc

Examples in Sentnces

  1. It is extremely cold
  2. This novel is quite interesting.
  • The girl is very beautiful.
  1. She is reasonably popular.

Non-Gradable Adjectives

  • They do not have different degrees.
  • Some examples of non gradable adjectives are:
  • Excellent
  • Impossible
  • Digital
  • Domestic
  • Unique
  • Absolutely
  • Nearly
  • Chemical
  • Totally
  • One cannot say “very dead” or “really dead”. The adjective “dead” is thus, a non-gradable adjective.
  • A grading adverb cannot be used with the non-gradable adjectives.

Example in a Sentence

  1. The dead relative will be buried soon.

ADVERBS

ADVERBS OF MANNER

  • They tell us the manner in which the action happened, happens, or will happen.
  • The examples are:
  • Carefully
  • Slowly
  • Loudly
  • Easily etc

Examples in Sentences

  1. She answered it correctly.
  2. The problem was solved easily.
  3. He drives
  4. He walked quickly.
  5. He runs fast.

ADVERBS OF TIME

  • An adverb of time tell us when an action happens.
  • An adverb of time can also tell us for how long that action occurred. For example, three months.
  • Some examples of adverbs of time are:
  • Today
  • Next week
  • Late
  • Early
  • Morning
  • Last year
  • Two months time, etc

Examples in Sentences

  1. I saw it yesterday.
  2. He came to school late.
  3. She watched the whole day.

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

  • These are adverbs that answer questions “How frequently?” or “how often?”.
  • They tell us how often something happens.
  • There are two types of adverbs of frequency:
  1. Adverbs of definite frequency, for example,
  • Monthly
  • Daily
  • Hourly
  • Weekly
  • Yearly
  • Every minute
  • Twice a month
  • Once
  • Three times a day, etc

Examples in Sentences

  • Employees pay taxes monthly.
  • The storekeeper checks the store every day.
  • I review my notes every week.
  1. Adverbs of indefinite frequency, for example,
  • Never
  • Sometimes
  • Often
  • Always
  • Seldom
  • Frequently
  • Occasionally
  • Usually

Examples in Sentences

  1. She is never
  2. I often do my assignment.
  3. They sometimes visit me.

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

PREPOSITIONS

SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS

  • A preposition joins words together and show the relationship between the different parts of a sentence.
  • The following are the simple prepositions with examples in sentences:
  1. In, on, at

He is in the house.

The cup is on the table.

He teaches at a school in Wajir.

  1. Above, below

Most students scored above 50.

Few students scored below 4o.

  1. Over, under

Don’t jump over the fence.

The cat is hiding under the bed.

  1. Around, through

The flowers we planted around the house.

The spear went through his body.

  1. Before, after

I will see him before lunch.

He is leaving after lunch.

  1. To, from

I am coming from Limuru.

I am going to Nairobi.

  1. About, by

Have you read the story about an ogre?

The story was written by Kendagor.

  1. With, without

He didn’t want to go with us.

We went without him.

  1. Between, among

This is a secret between you and me.

There is no secret among many.

  1. Inside, outside

The bottle is inside the box.

The spoon is outside the box.

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

PREPOSITIONS COMBINATIONS

Adjective+Preposition

Specific prepositions are used after certain adjectives. There is no definite rule to ascertain which preposition should be used with which adjective. We simply need to learn them.

Here is a list of some commonly used adjectives and the prepositions that normally follow them:

ADJECTIVE PREPOSITION
accustomed To
Afraid Of
Accused Of
acquainted With
Addicted To
Annoyed about/with/at
Allergic To
Amazed at/by
Anxious About
appreciated For
Ashamed Of
associated With
astonished at/by
Aware Of
Angry With
Afraid Of
Attached To
Bad At
Based On
beneficial To
Boastful For
Bored With
Brilliant At
Busy With
Capable Of
Careful with/about/of
Certain About
characteristic Of
Clever At
connected With
conscious Of
Content With
Crazy About
Crowded With
Curious About
dissatisfied With
Doubtful About
Delighted at/about
Derived From
Different From
disappointed With
Eager For
Eligible For
enthusiastic About
Excellent in/at
Excited About
experienced In
Exposed To
Envious Of
Faithful To
Familiar With
Famous For
fed up With
Free of/from
frightened Of
Friendly With
Fond Of
Furious About
Furnished With
Full Of
Generous with/about
Guilty of/about
Gentle With
Good At
Grateful To
Happy About
Hopeful of/about
Identical with/to
Immune To
impressed With
Inferior To
indifferent To
Innocent Of
interested In
Involved With
Incapable Of
Jealous Of
Kind To
Keen On
Late For
Limited To
Lucky At
Nervous of/about
Notorious For
Opposed To
Patient With
pessimistic About
Pleased With
Polite To
Popular With
Presented With
Proud Of
Punished For
Puzzled by/about
Qualified For
Ready For
Related To
Relevant To
respectful For
responsible For
Rid Of
Sad About
Safe From
Satisfied With
Scared Of
Sensitive To
Serious About
Sick Of
Similar To
Shocked By
Skilful At
Slow At
Sorry for/about
successful In
Suitable For
Sure of/about
Superior To
Surprised At
suspicious Of
sympathetic With
terrible At
terrified Of
tired Of
thankful to/for
trilled With
troubled With
typical Of
unaware Of
upset About
used To
wrong with/about
worried About

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

Examples in Sentences

1.      It was nice of you to help me.

2.      Why are you so angry about it? They were furious with me for not inviting them to my party.

3.      I was disappointed with the book she bought me.

4.      I was pleased with the present you gave me. Were you disappointed with your examination result

5.      They have been astonished by something.

6.      Everyone was surprised by /at the news.

7.      Are you excited about going on holiday next week?

8.      Are you afraid of dogs?

9.      I’m not ashamed of what I did.

10.  I’m not very good at driving big cars.

11.  Your composition is full of errors.

12.  Your name is similar to mine.

Verb +Preposition Combination

  • Some verbs need a preposition before an object or another verb.
  • These kinds are called dependent prepositions and they are followed by a noun or a gerund (‘ing’ form).
  • Here are some other verbs with their dependent prepositions.

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

account for
accuse SO of ST
adapt to
add SO/ST to SO/ST
add to
adjust to
admit ST to SO
admit to
agree on
agree to
agree with
apologize to SO for ST
appeal to SO for ST
approve of
argue with SO about SO/ST
argue with SO over ST
arrange for SO (to do something)
arrest SO for ST
arrive at (a place)
ask for

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

base on
be absent from (a place)
be accustomed to
be acquainted with
be addicted to ST
be afraid of
be angry at SO for ST
be angry with SO for ST
be annoyed at SO for ST
be annoyed with SO for ST
be anxious about ST
be associated with
be aware of
be blessed with
be bored by
be bored with
be capable of ST
be cluttered with ST
be committed to
be composed of
be concerned about
be connected to
be connected with
be content with
be convinced of ST
be coordinated with ST
be crowded in (a building or room)
be crowded with (people)
be dedicated to
be devoted to
be disappointed in
be disappointed with
be discouraged by
be discouraged from (doing something)
be discriminated against
be divorced from SO
be done with ST
be dressed in
be encouraged with
be engaged in ST
be engaged to SO
be envious of
be equipped with ST
be excited about
be exposed to
be faced with
be faithful to
be familiar with
be famous for
be filled with
be finished with
be fond of
be friendly to SO
be friendly with SO
be frightened by
be frightened of
be furnished with ST
be grateful to SO for ST
be guilty of ST
be happy about ST
be innocent of ST
be interested in
be involved in ST
be involved with
be jealous of
be known for ST
be limited to
be made from ST
be made of (material)
be married to
be opposed to
be patient with SO
be pleased with
be polite to SO
be prepared for
be protected from
be proud of
be related to
be relevant to
be remembered for ST
be responsible for
be satisfied with
be scared of
be terrified of
be thankful for
be tired from (doing something)
be tired of (doing something)
be worried about
beg for
begin with
believe in
belong to
benefit from
blame SO for ST
blame ST on SO
boast about
borrow ST from SO

 

care about
care for
catch up with
cater to
charge SO for ST
charge SO with ST
choose between SO/ST and SO/ST
chose ST from ST
collide with
come from
comment on
communicate with SO
compare SO/ST to SO/ST
compare SO/ST with SO/ST
compete with
complain about
compliment SO on ST
concentrate on
concern SO with ST
confess to
confuse SO/ST with SO/ST
congratulate SO on ST
consent to ST
consist of
contribute to ST
convict SO of ST
cope with
correspond with SO
count on
cover with
crash into
cure SO of ST

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

deal with
decide against
decide between SO/ST and SO/ST
decide on
dedicate ST to SO
demand ST from SO
depend on
derive ST from ST
deter SO from ST
devote ST to SO
differ from
disagree with
disapprove of
discourage SO from ST
discuss ST with SO
distinguish between SO/ST and SO/ST
distinguish SO/ST from SO/ST
distract SO from ST
dream about
dream of
dress SO in ST
drink to

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

elaborate on ST
emerge from ST
escape from (a place)
exchange SO/ST for SO/ST
exclude SO from ST
excuse SO for ST
expel SO from (a place)
experiment on
explain ST to SO

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

feel about
feel like
fight about
fight against
fight for
fight with
forget about
forgive SO for ST

 

gamble on
gawk at
gaze at
get back from (a place)
get married to SO
get rid of
get through with
get tired of
get used to
give ST to SO
glare at
gloat at
grieve for
gripe at SO
grumble at SO about ST

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

happen to
harp on
hear about
hear from SO
hear of
help SO with ST
hide ST from SO
hinder SO/ST from ST
hinge on
hope for

 

insist on
insure against
interfere in ST
interfere with ST
introduce SO/ST to SO/ST
invest in
invite SO to
involve SO/ST in ST
jabber about
joke about
joke with SO about SO/ST
jot down ST

 

laugh about
laugh at
learn about
lend ST to SO
listen for
listen to
long for
look at
look forward to

 

meet with SO
mistake SO/ST for SO/ST
nod at
nod to

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

object to
operate on

 

participate in ST
pay for
persist in
plan on
praise SO for ST
pray for
prefer SO/ST to SO/ST
prepare for
present SO with ST
prevent SO/ST from (doing something)
prohibit SO from (doing something)
provide for
provide SO with ST
provide SO/ST for SO
punish SO for ST

 

react to
recover from ST
refer to ST
relate to
rely on
remind SO of SO/ST
reply to
rescue SO from SO/ST
resign from ST
respond to
result in ST
retire from ST
save SO from ST
search for
sentence SO to ST
separate SO/ST from SO/ST
share ST with SO
shout at
show ST to SO
smile at SO
speak to SO about SO/ST
specialize in ST
spend (money/time) on
stand for
stare at
stem from
stop SO from (doing something)
subject SO to ST
subscribe to
substitute SO/ST for SO/ST
subtract ST from ST
succeed at ST
succeed in (doing something)
suffer from
suspect SO of ST

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

take advantage of
take care of
talk about
talk to
tell SO about ST
thank SO for ST
think about
think of
toast to
translate ST into (a language)
trust SO with ST
turn to
use ST for ST

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

vote against
vote for
wait for
warn about
waste (money/time) on
wish for
work for
work on
worry about
write about
write to SO
yap about
yearn for

Exercise 1

Fill the blank spaces with the most appropriate prepositions.

  1. She has placed the cup _____________ the table.
  2. I will allow you go _________ the field.
  3. She is singing _________ her room.
  4. Is he ________ home now?
  5. He lives _________ Nairobi.
  6. Don’t be late _________ class.
  7. Compare your points __________ your friend’s.
  8. Are the new student ________ Ethiopia?
  9. Rich is still ________ vacation.
  10. My daughter’s birthday is ________ May.

Answers

  1. On
  2. To
  3. In
  4. At
  5. In
  6. For
  7. With
  8. From
  9. On
  10. In

Exercise 2

Complete the sentences with the most appropriate prepositions.

  1. It was stupid …………………her to go out without a coat.
  2. Everyone was pleased ………………….the marks they scored.
  3. I am bored ………………..singing every morning.
  4. Are you interested ………………..sports?
  5. Kenya is famous ……………… her athletes.
  6. I will be happy to see married ……………. Gregory.
  7. The town is crowded with people.
  8. You will be held responsible …………………anything that happens.
  9. She is sorry ……………….. her behavior last night.
  10. You should be sorry …………………..missing the lesson.
  11. Jemimah is fond …………………. dogs.
  12. I am keen ………….. leave this school.
  13. What are you excited ……………..?
  14. It seems she is upset ………………something.
  15. You shouldn’t be worried …………………anything as long as I am around.

Answers

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

  • Of
  • With
  • With
  • In
  • For
  • To
  • With
  • For
  • About
  • For
  • Of
  • On
  • About
  • About
  • About

CONJUNCTIONS

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

  • A coordinating conjunction connects words, phrases, and clauses.
  • And, but, for, nor, or, so, and yet are the known coordinating conjunctions.

Examples in Sentences

  1. This is a beautiful girl, but a difficult one to convince.
  2. It was cold, so I put on my jacket.
  • This tea is thick and sweet.
  1. Do you like white rice, or brown rice?

Functions of Coordinating Conjunctions

Conjunction Function

 

Example in a Sentence
And Joins two similar ideas Jane and Mary are in form one.
But Joins two contrasting ideas He drives slowly, but sure.
Or Joins two alternative ideas We can go to Naivasha, or stay here and watch news.
So Shows the second idea is the result of the first I was sick, so I did not go to school.
Nor Joins two negative alternatives. He doesn’t wake up early, nor do I.
For Give a reason I was punished, for I was late.
Yet Joins two contrasting ideas (means “but”) I was punished, yet I arrived early.

Exercise

Join each pair of sentences with an appropriate coordinating conjunction.

  1. I love to travel. I hate travelling by bus.
  2. You should go to bed now. You will be tired tomorrow.
  3. The bus stopped. Two passengers got out of it.
  4. Helen was angry with Jane. Helen went out to cool down.
  5. I arrived at school late. I left home early.

Answers

  1. I love to travel but I hate travelling by bus.
  2. You should go to bed now, or you will be tired tomorrow.
  3. The bus stopped and two passengers got out of it.
  4. Helen was angry with Jane, so she went out to cool down.
  5. I arrived at school late, yet I left home early.

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

 PHRASES

  • A phrase is a group of words without a subject and a verb and which does not make sense on its own.
  • There are various types of phrases. They include:
  • Noun phrases
  • Verb phrases
  • Adjective phrases
  • Adverb phrases
  • Prepositional phrases
  • At your level, we will only study noun phrases.

NOUN PHRASES

  • A noun phrase is a group of words that plays role of a noun and has a noun has the head word (main word).
  • Look at the example below.
  • I saw Bingo. The word in bold is a noun
  • I saw your dog. In boldface, is the noun phrase that has replaced the noun in above sentence.

Examples of Noun Phrases

The new car

My old shirt

The best car safety device

Constituents of a Noun Phrase

  • A noun phrase consists of:
  • A determiner, which can be an article, a number, or an adjective.
  • Modifiers, which can be an adjective, or combinations of adjectives.
  • Modifiers can either be premodifier if it comes before the main noun, or post modifier if it follows the noun.
  • Determiners precede modifiers.
  • Study the noun phrases.
Phrase Determiner  Pre modifier Main noun Post Modifier
The tall woman

The longest river

Your sister

Any big supermarket nearby

 

The

The

Your

Any

Tall

Longest

 

Big

 

 

Woman

River

Sister

Supermarket

 

 

 

Nearby

 

Exercise

Underline the noun phrase in each of the sentences below.

  1. Did you see the tall man?
  2. He called all the stubborn students.
  3. He wishes to see the president.
  4. He bought her a beautiful white blouse.
  5. An horse prefers living in dark stables.
  6. It is disgraceful to write such rubbish.
  7. The people’s president is in Mombasa.
  8. The girl in blue skirt is my sister.
  9. The soldiers are true heroes.
  10. My best friend is Teris.

SIMPLE SENTENCES

A simple sentence has one clause —independent

  • SENTENCE STRUCTURE (SUBJECT, PREDICATE)
  • A simple sentence has the formula:

Subject + Predicate

  • Look at the example below.

This desk is mine.

  • This desk – Subject
  • Is mine – the predicate
  • A subject is the one doing the action.
  • Predicate is the part of the sentence which talks about the subject and which has a verb.
  • The predicate must contain a verb. The other constituents of a predicate can be an adverb, adjective, pronoun, etc.
  • Can you identify the subject and predicate in each of the sentences below?
  • She came to see me.
  • Njoroge was here.
  • I saw them dancing.
  • This is the cheapest dress in town.
  • You are a big fool.

TYPES OF SENTENCES

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

  • An interrogative sentence is used to ask questions.
  • There are various question types:
  • Yes/no questions
  • Alternative questions
  • Tag questions
  • w/h questions

Yes/No Questions

  • They are answered with yes or no as answers.
  • Examples are:
  • Did you score everything?
  • Have you seen it?

Alternative Questions

  • There are options two to be chosen from.
  • Examples are:
  • Would you like to take tea, or coffee?
  • Do you want a red pen, or blue one?

Tag Questions

  • There is the statement part, which is followed by a comma, and then the question part.
  • Examples are:
  • She is the thief, isn’t she?
  • It does not smell good, does it?

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

W/H Questions

  • The first word start with the two letters “w and h”.
  • Those words used for asking these questions are: who, where, which, how, why, what
  • Examples
  • Who sent you?
  • Where do you live?

Exercise

Form three different question types from the sentence:

You stole my cap.

Answer

  1. Did you steal my red cap? Yes/no
  2. Who stole my red cap? w/h
  3. You stole me red cap, didn’t you?

 IMPERATIVE SENTENCES

  • An imperative sentence issues a request or a direct command.
  • Usually, imperative sentences begin with verbs.
  • Depending on the strength of the emotion, and the forcefulness of the command, it can end in either a full stop (.) or an exclamation mark (!).

Examples

  1. Complete your assignment by afternoon!
  2. Kindly open the door.
  • Turn left at the cross road.

End Punctuation Marks with Imperative Sentences

  • If the command is forceful, use an exclamation mark (!). for example,

Leave now!

Open the door!

  • If the command is polite, or in the form of advice, put a period (.). examples,

Please get me my book.

Leave the door open.

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES

  • An exclamatory sentence expresses emotion.
  • The emotion can be of love, happiness, confusion, anger, etc.
  • Usually ends with an exclamation mark.
  • Use the word “what” or “how”before a noun.

Examples

  • What a day!
  • What awful plastic!
  • What funny people they are!
  • What a match!

Exercise

Rewrite each sentence beginning with the word “what” or “how”.

  1. He is a foolish man.
  2. This is a pleasant day.
  3. That is clever of you.
  4. They are lovely flowers.
  5. He came early

Answers

  1. What a foolish man!
  2. What a pleasant day
  3. How clever of you!
  4. What lovely flowers!
  5. How early he came!

AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES

There are two types:

  • Declarative
  • Negative

DECLARATIVE SENTENCES/

  • Used to make statements.
  • End with a full stop or period (.).
  • Here are examples of declarative sentences.
  • My name is George.
  • He brings me chocolate.
  • She visited last year.
  • I will leave in the evening.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES

  • A negative sentence states that something is untrue.
  • A negative adverb is added to negate the validity of the sentence.
  • A negative statement is formed by adding the word “not” to the first auxiliary verb. Examples
  • I did not abuse you.
  • This novel does not have a good ending.
  • You are not among the lucky ones.
  • Dan did not steal from me, it was you.

Exercise

Negate the following sentences.

  1. She has a bag.
  2. I am sick.
  3. He sells flowers.
  4. They work there.
  5. She writes good compositions.
  6. It is interesting.

Answers

  1. She does not have a bag.
  2. I am not sick.
  3. He doesn’t sell flowers.
  4. They don’t work there.
  5. She doesn’t write good compositions.
  6. It is not interesting.

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

ANSWERS

PARTS OF SPEECH

NOUNS

COMMON NOUNS

  1. The students were taught
  2. I have visited a continent.
  3. She lives in the city.
  4. We eat in the hotel.
  5. Have you ever swum in the river?
  6. I drive a car.
  7. Everyone went shopping at the supermarket.
  8. A soldier is dead.
  9. I come from a country.
  10. I teach at a school.

PROPER NOUNS

  1. I will take you to Rich’s Palace.
  2. Sarah is the girl I told you about.
  3. Of all the continents, I like Africa the most.
  4. Gracy is the cutest kitten ever.
  5. I am craving Oreos.
  6. I used Tilly in cooking.
  7. Jupiter is one of the planets.
  8. Margaret was a great author.

CONCRETE NOUNS ABSTRACT NOUNS

Exercise 1

  • A man must always have the courage to face every challenge.

Man – concrete

Courage – abstract

  • No matter what happens, we must not lose hope.

Hope – abstract

  • My faith in God is very strong.

Faith – abstract

God – concrete

  • A person should buy a beautiful dress.

Person, dress – concrete

  • Have you seen the black dog?

Dog – concrete

  • Love is blind.

Love – abstract

Blind – concrete

Exercise 2

  1. Advice
  2. Education
  3. Intelligence
  4. Importance
  5. Happiness
  6. Confidence
  7. Pride
  8. Anger
  9. Imagination
  10. Loneliness

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

NUMBER

ARTICLES

  • An
  • A
  • The
  • No article
  • A
  • The
  • The
  • No article
  • An
  • An

 

 

PRONOUNS

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

Exercise 1

  • I
  • It
  • Him
  • Me
  • Her

Exercise 2

  • The old gate doesn’t look good.

It doesn’t  look good.

  • Tom and Mary went to school.

They went to school.

  • The dog bit the doctor and the chief.

It bit them.

  • Moses runs faster than Rebecca.

He runs faster than Rebecca.

  • Phiona and Ruth played doubles.

They played doubles.

  • Christine is clever.

She is clever.

  • I brought the dress.

I brought it.

  • Antony drove Junet and me.

Anthony drove us.

 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

  • Her
  • Your
  • Mine
  • Theirs
  • Yours
  • Her
  • Their
  • Our
  • His
  • Your
  • Its
  • His

GRAMMAR FOR FORM ONE

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

  • Ourselves
  • Themselves
  • Yourself
  • Itself
  • Myself, myself
  • Itself
  • Himself
  • Yourselves
  • Themselves
  • Herself

PHRASES

NOUN PHRASES

  1. Did you see the tall man?
  2. He called all the stubborn students.
  3. He wishes to see the president.
  4. He bought her a beautiful white blouse.
  5. An horse prefers living in dark stables.
  6. It is disgraceful to write such rubbish.
  7. The people’s president is in Mombasa.
  8. The girl in blue skirt is my sister.
  9. The soldiers are true heroes.
  10. My best friend is Teris.

ALL ENGLISH NOTES FORM 1-4 WITH TOPICAL QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

PRIMARY NOTES, SCHEMES OF WORK AND EXAMINATIONS