• A collective noun is a word for a group of specific things or people regarded as an entity.
  • Collective nouns are grouped under three categories:
  1. Category of people
  2. Category of animals
  • Category of things
  1. Category of People

The collective used here are:

  • An audience of listeners
  • A babble of barbers
  • A bench of bishops
  • A blush of boys
  • A promise of barmen
  • A board of directors
  • A class of students
  • An army of soldiers
  • A band of musicians
  • A bunch of crooks
  • A cast of actors/players (also a company or cry of)
  • A choir of singers
  • A crew of sailors
  • A crowd of people/ spectators
  • A flock of tourists
  • A gang of labourers
  • A gang of thieves
  • A goring of butchers
  • A group of dancers
  • A pack of thieves
  • A panel of experts
  • A regiment of soldiers
  • A staff of employees
  • A tabernacle of bakers
  • A team of players
  • A thought of barons
  • A tribe of natives
  • A troop of boy scouts
  • A troupe of artists/dancers


  1. Category of Animals

Those used for animals include:

  • An army of ants
  • A catch of fish
  • A drove of goats/bullocks
  • A fall of lambs
  • A flight of birds
  • A flock of birds
  • A flock of sheep
  • A haul of fish
  • A herd of buffaloes/cattle/deer/elephants/goats
  • A hive of bees
  • A host of sparrows
  • A kennel of dogs
  • A knot of frogs
  • A litter of cubs
  • A litter of kittens/puppies
  • A murder of crows
  • A pack of wolves
  • A pack of hounds
  • A swarm of bees/flies
  • A team of horses
  • A team of ducks/horses/oxen
  • A tribe of goats
  • A troop of lions/monkeys
  • A zoo of wild animals
  1. Category of Things
  • An album of autographs/photographs/stamps
  • An anthology of poems/stories
  • A basket of fruits
  • A bowl of rice
  • A bouquet of flowers
  • A bunch of keys
  • A chest of drawers
  • A cloud of dust
  • A convoy of lorries
  • A fleet of ships/lorries
  • A forest of trees (also; stand, clump, grove of)
  • A galaxy of stars
  • A group of islands
  • A hedge of bushes
  • A library of books
  • A nest of rumours
  • A pack of cards
  • A pack of lies
  • A pair of shoes
  • A range of mountains
  • A rouleau of coins
  • A stack of wood
  • A string of pearls
  • A wad of notes


Exercise 1

What name is given to a group of:

  1. Writers
  2. Widows
  3. Witches
  4. Tailors
  5. Judges
  6. Grammarians
  7. Shoemakers
  8. Girl guides
  9. Foresters
  10. Prisoners
  11. Preachers
  12. Candidates
  13. Matrons
  14. Magistrates
  15. Lawyers


  • A compound noun is a noun that is made with two or more words.
  • There are three forms for compound nouns:
  • Open or space – space between words, for example, man servant
  • Hyphenated – hyphen between words, for example, sister-in-law
  • Closed or solid – neither space nor hyphen between words, for example, witchcraft

Compound Nouns Combinations

The following are the compound noun combinations with examples:

Noun + Noun



Adjective + Noun



Verb + Noun

Washing machine

Dinning table

Noun + Verb



Verb + Preposition


Noun + Prepositional Phrase

Master of ceremonies


Preposition + Noun


Noun + Adjective



Plural Forms of Compound Nouns

  • In general, we make the plural of the compound noun by adding –s to the most significant one. Look at the table
Singular Plural
Head teacher




Head teachers




There are variations with those ending in –ful, like spoonful. You can either say spoonsful (new style), spoonfuls (old style). It is advisable you remain consistent in your choice.

Compound Noun New Style Old Style


















  • There are those nouns that have no obvious significant word. They will require you to consult the dictionary to find their plural. For example,
  • Go-betweens
  • Good-for-nothings
  • Grown-ups
  • Higher-ups etc
  • For compound nouns made of noun +noun, the first noun is taken as an adjective, and does not take an –s. examples
  • Apple trees
  • Toothbrushes
  • Bus stops , etc


Using compound nouns, shorten the underlined phrases in the sentences below.

  • She is cleaning a room for stores.
  • He bought a new ruler for measuring up to 30 cm.
  • June is the assistant class secretary for form two.
  • We had to stop at the station for the buses.
  • Get me size of cables.
  • They bought it as there was reduction in cost.
  • Students are given two breaks of twenty minutes.
  • These are the plugs with three pins.
  • The mechanic has carried two metal boxes for the tools.
  • Are you the wife of my son?


  • A noun can be a possessive when it can also have “of a” or ”of the” preceding it. For example,

The watch of a girl – a girl’s watch.

The milk of the cow – the cow’s milk.

Singular Possessives

  • A singular noun is usually made possessive by adding ‘s to the end of the noun. For example,

The man’s wheelbarrow is lost.

  • Most proper nouns are made possessives by adding ‘s to the end of the word, for example,

Khalwale’s shirt is dark.

  • A singular noun that ends in s can be made possessive by either adding ‘s to the end of the word, or by only adding to the end of the word. Example,

Matthews’ job is good.

Matthews’s job is good.

Plural Possessives

  • A plural noun that ends in s can be made possessive by only adding to the end of the word. Example

All the technicians’ fingers were cut.

  • A plural noun that ends in other letters apart from s can be made possessive by adding ‘s  to the word. For example,

The women’s team will play next week.

Possessive Pronouns

  • Most possessive pronouns do not use an apostrophe to indicate possession. Examples
  • That is its tail.
  • His is the new one.
  • Ours has been received.
  • Some possessive pronouns use ‘s, for example,

Grade “A” is everyone’s dream.

This is someone’s wrist watch.

Note: “it’s” is a contraction for “it is” and not a possessive.




Pronoun Number

  • A pronoun can be singular or plural.
  • Singular pronouns are:
  • I, me, he, him, his, she, her, it, anyone, this, etc
  • Plural pronouns are:
  • We, us, they, them, these, all, those, etc

Pronoun Person

  • Pronouns are divided into three grammatical persons. These divisions are:
  • First person

It refers to the one or ones speaking.

The pronouns used here are I, me, mine, we, us, ours

  • Second person

The one spoken to, or directly addressed, is referred to here.

The pronouns in the second person are you, yours

  • Third person

It refers to the one or ones spoken about.

Some pronouns used in the second person are it, its, they, theirs, them

Examples in Sentences

  1. She likes me.
  2. Fred bought him an umbrella.
  3. Yours is the smallest.


  • An indefinite pronoun does not refer to any specific person, thing or amount.
  • Some common indefinite pronouns are:
  • All
  • Another
  • Any
  • Anybody
  • Anyone
  • Anything
  • Anywhere
  • Both
  • Each
  • Either
  • Enough
  • Everybody
  • Everyone
  • Everything
  • Few
  • Many
  • Nobody
  • None
  • One
  • Several
  • Some
  • Somebody
  • Someone
  • Somewhere etc
  • Most indefinite pronouns are either singular or plural. Some of them can, however, be used as singular and plural depending on the context.
  • A singular pronoun takes a singular verb. Examples,
  1. Each teacher has written her/his lesson notes.
  2. There are two cups. One is
  • By the same token, a plural pronoun takes a plural verb for agreement. Examples,
  1. Many have been here.
  2. Both are my friends.

Meaning of Some Typical Indefinite Pronouns

Singular Indefinite Pronouns

Pronoun Meaning Example in a Sentence
Another Additional That cook was stubborn. Can you help me get another?
Anybody/anyone No matter what person Is there anyone at home?
Anything No matter what thing Is there anything left there?
Each Every one of two or more Each has to pay for the damage.
Either One of the two Either is ok.
Enough As much as needed There is enough money to take us the whole week.
Everybody/everyone All people Since everyone has arrived has left, you can lock the gate.
Everything All things Everything that belongs to them have been swept by flood.
Neither Not one and not the other of the two I always advise Muktar and Asiya but neither listens to me.
Nobody/no-one No person I have written to many people but no-one has replied.
Nothing Not anything Nothing has been heard from them since.
One An unidentified person or thing One has not been found.
Other A different one from the one that has been mentioned One of the twins is brown while the other is dark.
Somebody/someone Unknown or unspecified person Someone is missing.
Something An unspecified thing I hope she is cooking something.


Plural Indefinite Pronouns

  • Both
  • Many
  • All

Exercise 1

Complete the sentence with the most appropriate indefinite pronoun from the list given below.










  1. Would like ______________ to drink?
  2. I couldn’t see _____________ in the dark.
  3. Does _________ know her?
  4. Don’t ask where she has gone. Dorothy can go __________ she feels like going.
  5. The weapons were found ____________ here.
  6. There is ____________ to watch.
  7. Since _____________ has left, the shop can be closed.
  8. We will get you _____________ you are. You can’t hide for long.
  9. ____________ has approved our proposal.
  10. We were told that there is a good school _____________ near here.

Exercise 2

Rewrite each sentence using the word in brackets.

  1. He said nothing useful. (anything)
  2. There is no anything left. (nothing)
  3. Can anyone answer this question? (no-one)



  • Auxiliary (or Helping) verbs are used together with a main verb to show the verb’s tense or to form a negative or question.
  • There are two categories of auxiliary verbs:
  • Primary Auxiliaries
  • Modal auxiliaries
  • Primary Auxilliaries
  • The most common auxiliary verbs are have, be, and do.
  • The three have their forms as shown below.
Verb Forms
Be ·         Be

·         Am

·         Is

·         Are

·         Was

·         Were

·         Been

·         Being

Have ·         Have

·         Has

·         Had

Do ·         Do

·         Does

·         Did


 Examples in Sentences

  1. Emiliana is running away from us.
  2. If she doesn’t come on time, she’ll have to do all the work.
  3. Does your name begin with an “F”?
  4. The boys have finished the race.
  5. I am writing you a notice
  6. The milk has been drank by the cat.
  7. I have purchased a new pair of shoes to replace the ones that were lost in my luggage.
  8. We hope you don’t drop out of school.
  9. She was asking Wachira a question.
  10. Richard has been working hard the whole year.
  11. Sarah doesn’t ski or roller skate.

(b)   Modal Auxiliary Verbs

  • Unlike the primary auxiliary verbs, modal auxiliaries never change form.
  • Look at the list of modal auxiliary verbs follows:
  • Can
  • Could
  • May
  • Might
  • Must
  • Need
  • Ought to
  • Shall
  • Should
  • Will
  • Would


 Functions of Auxiliary Verbs

Auxiliary verbs, also known as helping verbs, add functional or grammatical meaning to the clauses in which they appear. They perform their functions in several different ways:

  • They express tense. For example past, present and future.
  • Make sentences grammatically correct.
  • They quantify verbs.
  • Sentences are emphasized through them.

Auxiliary verbs almost always appear together with a main verb, and though there are only a few of them, they are among the most frequently occurring verbs in the English language.

Auxiliary Verb Exercises

Fill in the blank with the correct auxiliary verb from the choices presented:

  1. What ________________ the kids doing when you last saw them? (was, were, are, did, been)
  2. Carla ________________ always wanted to try skydiving. (was, doesn’t, has, is, have)
  3. Where __________________ you go on your summer vacation? (were, been, are, did, does)
  4. Why do you think she __________ call you like she said she would? (didn’t, is, hasn’t, has been, have)
  5. Mary _____________ going to be upset when she hears what happened. (will, don’t, is, didn’t, has)
  6. Jeremy _____________ want to go to the movies; he wants to stay home instead. (doesn’t, isn’t, wasn’t, hasn’t, was not)
  7. I _________________ appreciate his jokes. They weren’t funny. (did, have, been, didn’t, haven’t)
  8. I really like fish but I _______________ care for meat. (weren’t, been, don’t, is, was)
  9. Where _____________ you going when I saw you last night? (were, was, is, do, did)
  10. Tara ________________ called yet; she’s late as usual. (are, were, has, hasn’t, wouldn’t)

Answers: 1 – were, 2 – has, 3 – did, 4 – didn’t, 5 – is, 6 – doesn’t, 7 – didn’t, 8 – don’t, 9 – were, 10 – hasn’t


  • Also called complete aspect, is the aspect of a verb which expresses a completed action.
  • The completed action can be:
  • In the past, for example,
  • We had met.
  • She had left.
  • They had drunk.
  • In the present, examples,
  • I have seen it.
  • He has taken his bag.
  • It has drunk its milk.
  • In future, for example,
  • She will have left.
  • They will have gone.
  • Helsy will have completed.

How to Form the Perfective Aspect

  • Formed by using the auxiliary verb have and the past participle form of the main verb.

Past Perfect Tense

  • Expresses action completed in the past.
  • There could be one action completed before the one started.

Examples in Sentences

  1. When he arrived, I had already eaten.
  2. John had finished high school by the time I joined form one.
  3. Gregory had seen them.

The Present Perfect Tense

  • Expresses the action completed in the present, before the next one starts.
  • Examples of sentences in this tense are:
  • He has played.
  • We have finished.
  • I have jumped already.

The Future Perfect Tense

  • The future perfect tense refers to a completed action in the future. When we use this tense we are projecting ourselves forward into the future and looking back at an action that will be completed some time later than now. It is most often used with a time expression.
  • The future perfect is composed of two elements
    the simple future of the verb “to have” (will have) + the past participle of the main verb
Affirmative Negative Interrogative Negative Interrogative
I will have jumped I won’t have jumped Will I have jumped? Won’t I have jumped?
You will have jumped You won’t have jumped Will you have jumped? Won’t you have jumped?
He will have jumped He won’t have arrived Will he have arrived? Won’t he have arrived?
We will have jumped We won’t have jumped Will we have jumped? Won’t we have jumped?
They will have jumped They won’t have jumped Will they have jmped? Won’t they have jumped?


  • I will have been here for six months on June 23rd.
  • By the time you read this I will have left.
  • You will have finished your report by this time next week.
  • Won’t they have arrived by 5:00?
  • Will you have eaten when I pick you up?



  • It expresses an on-going action.
  • The action could have been in the past, present, or will happen in future.
  • Verbs in this aspect are recognizable by the present participle (-ing)

Progressive Aspect with Past Tense

We use the pattern:

Was or were + present Participle,


  • We were travelling.
  • She was writing.

Progressive Aspect with Present Tense

The pattern below is used

Is or are +present participle, for example

  • She is writing.
  • They are dancing.

Progressive Aspect With Future Time

To form this, we use the pattern:

Will be + present participle

  • He will be cyling.
  • They will be crying.


  • There are a number of different ways of referring to the future in English. It is important to remember that we are expressing more than simply the time of the action or event.
  • Future always refers to a time ‘later than now’, but it may also express our attitude to the future event.

All of the following ideas can be expressed using different tenses:

  • Simple prediction: There will be strike next week.
  • Arrangements: She is running to Kilgoris tomorrow.
  • Plans and intentions: They are going to fly to London in December.
  • Prediction based on present evidence: I think it’s going to rain!
  • Willingness: She will pay your
  • An action in progress in the future: This time next year he will be in form three.
  • An event or action that is a routine: You will be seeing Perpetua in the church tomorrow.
  • Obligation: You are to drive directly to my house.
  • An action or event that will take place immediately or very soon: The train is about to leave.
  • Projecting ourselves into the future and looking back at a completed action: A month from now he will have finished all his exams.

The four future verb tenses in English are:

Simple future tense

The simple future refers to a time later than now, and expresses facts or certainty.

Examples in Sentences

  • I will see you later.
  • She will do it. Do not worry.

How to Form the simple future

  • The simple future tense is composed of two parts: will / shall + the infinitive without
  • study the table below:
Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I will visit I won’t visit.

I will not visit.

Will I visit?

Won’t I visit?

She will visit. She won’t visit.

She will not visit.

Will she visit?

Won’t she visit?

They will visit. They won’t visit.

They will not visit.

Will they visit?

Won’t they visit?


Contractions in simple Future

I will = I’ll
We will = we’ll
You will = you’ll
He will = he’ll
She will = she’ll
They will = they’ll
Will not = won’t

Future continuous

  • The future continuous refers to an unfinished action or event that will be in progress at a time later than now.
  • The future continuous is made up of:
    the simple future of the verb ‘to be’ + the present participle (base+ing)
  • The future continuous is used for quite a few different purposes. These functions include:
  • To project oneself into the future. Example

This time next month she will be writing her final paper.

  • To predict or guess about future events. Example

You’ll be missing these meals once leave high school.

  • To ask politely for information about the future. Example

Will you be attending my weeding this weekend?

  • To refer to continuous events expected to happen in the future. Examples

I’ll be tracing him next month.

Future perfect

  • The future perfect tense refers to a completed action in the future.
  • In using this tense, we project ourselves forward into the future and looking back at an action that will be completed sometime later than now.
  • It is most often used with a time expression.
  • To form it, include:
    the simple future of the verb “to have” (will have) + the past participle of the main verb

Examples in Sentences

  • Won’t you be here for my party for three hours next week?
  • You will have evacuated the building by the time the constructors arrive.
  • She will have left by the time we arrive.


Future Perfect Continuous

  • This tense is used to project oneself forward in time and to look back.
  • It refers to events or actions in a time between now and some future time are unfinished.
  • It is most often used with a time expression.
  • The future perfect continuous is composed of two elements
    the future perfect of the verb “to be” (will have been) + the present participle of the main verb (base + ing)
  • Study the examples below:
  • I will have been doing my degree at the university for two years by 2019.
  • By 2030 he will have been driving his car for 15 years.
  • Next year I will have been learning in this school for three years.



  • Adjectives denoting attributes usually occur in a specific order.
  • In general, adjectives follow the following order:
Order Examples
Quantity Thirty, many, some
Opinion Nasty, dirty, beautiful
Size Short, tiny, huge
Shape Square, round, circular
Age Young, new, 20-year-old
Colour Green, indigo, pink
Origin/Nationality Kenyan, English, Chinese
Purpose Serving, sleeping,
Material Glass, earthen, metallic


Examples in Sentences

  1. Hamisi has decided to sell his flashy new German
  2. I met several charming Indian
  • There are three big football balls in the store.
  1. She has bought a few small white sleeping


  • They talk about when the action happened, will happen, or happens.
  • They are placed after the main verb or object.
  • Examples of adverbs of place are:
  • Up
  • Down
  • Far
  • Overseas
  • Nearby
  • North, etc

Examples in Sentences

  1. She went there.
  2. The supermarket is
  3. She went overseas.
  4. The bedroom is upstairs.
  • An adverb of degree tells us the intesity at which at which an action occurs, or degree of an adjective or another adverb.
  • Examples of adverbs of degree are:
  • Extremely
  • Quite
  • Very
  • Almost
  • Just etc

 Examples in Sentences

  1. It very cold outside.
  2. This water is extremely hot.



  • A complex preposition consists of two or three word combinations but acting as a single unit.
  • Below are the examples:
  • In accordance with
  • On behalf of
  • In aid of
  • In line with
  • With respect to
  • By mean of
  • In relation to

Examples in Sentences

  1. I am writing in regard to what we discussed yesterday.
  2. He came on behalf of his boss.
  3. A word can be distinguished on the basis of stress.




  • A subordinating conjunction joins a subordinate clause (dependent) to a main clause (independent clause).
  • A subordinating conjunction is always followed by a clause.
  • It reduces the importance of one clause so that the reader understands which of the two ideas are important.
  • Separate the subordinate clause from the main clause with a comma when the sentence begin with a subordinate clause.
  • The following is a list of common subordinating conjunctions:
  • After
  • Although
  • As
  • As if
  • As long as
  • As much as
  • As soon as
  • As though
  • Because
  • Before
  • Even if
  • Even though
  • How
  • If
  • Inasmuch
  • In order that
  • Lest
  • Now that
  • Once
  • Provided
  • Provided that
  • Since
  • So that
  • Than
  • That
  • Though
  • Till
  • Unless
  • Until
  • When
  • Whenever
  • Where
  • Whereas
  • Wherever
  • While
  • Why


Examples in Sentences

  1. When the door was knocked, Joan rose to open it.
  2. It is hard to give up drugs once you get addicted.
  3. Because I was sick, I went to see the doctor.
  4. Although it was cold, he took off his coat.
  5. I can’t take you out since I have no money.


Combine the pair of sentences using subordinating conjunction. Choose the conjunction from the list below.

Rather than



Now that


Whether or not


Even though



  1. Henry passed the exams first time. Jane had to retake the exams twice.
  2. My sister likes Math. I prefer Chemistry.
  3. It was raining. I didn’t get wet.
  4. I will be late today. There is jam in town.
  5. Njuguna passed the test. Njuguna did not revise.
  6. I will leave. There is someone to take care of the baby.
  7. John is a boy. Mary is a girl.
  8. Go to play. Call your sister.
  9. I didn’t give the money to my sister. I gave the money to my cousin.
  10. You know him personally. You have to agree that he has done a lot for this country.



  • A word(s) used to exclaim or protest or command.
  • An injection conveys an emotion. The emotion can be of joy, disgust, surprise, excitement, etc.
  • This word is normally placed at the beginning of a sentence.
  • A forceful injection is followed by an exclamation mark.
  • A less forceful injection is followed by a comma.

Examples in Sentences

  1. Wow! I have won it!
  2. Jeepers, that was too close.
  3. Indeed, I like it.
  1. Good! I can now relax.
  2. Oh, I didn’t know about that
  3. No, leave me alone.

Interjections which are Sounds

Interjections that follow are of sounds:

  • Phew
  • Ah!
  • Mmm!
  • Humph


Fill the blanks with appropriate interjections.

  1. __________, I can’t see you tomorrow.
  2. _________, I will wait for you.
  3. __________ ! The train is leaving!
  4. ___________ I can now go and play.
  5. _________ ! I am lost in this big town!
  6. _________, that is wonderful.



  • A sentence must have a verb.
  • A verb phrase has a verb as the head word.
  • A verb phrase consists of a main verb plus auxiliary veb(s).
  • Look at the sentence below.

These girls are annoying.

Are annoying is the verb phrase.

Are is an auxiliary verb.

Annoying is the main verb.

  • The main verb normally comes at the end of the phrase.

More Examples In Sentences

  1. The prices have fallen.
  2. They could be running from me.
  3. They have been asking this question over and over again.
  4. She should have been writing the book.



  • An adverb phrase is a word group with an adverb as the main word.
  • An adverb phrase can modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.

Constituents of Adverb Phrases

An adverb phrase can consist of:

  • An adverb
  • Pre modifier, which can be an adverb, adjective, or a preposition.
  • Post modifier

Adverb Phrases Examples

  1. Quite slowly

Quite is the pre modifier, while slowly is the adverb

  1. On Friday night

Pre modifier is the preposition on . night is the post modifier

Examples in Sentences

  1. The project was done very slowly.
  2. We talked all day long.




Independent Clauses

  • A clause is independent when it meets the following conditions:
  • It has a subject
  • It has an action—what the subject is doing.
  • It expresses a complete thought.


  1. We left home.
  2. He lives in Nairobi.

Subordinate Clauses

  • A subordinate clause (or dependent) clasuse cannot stand alone as a sentence since it does not express a complete thought.
  • A dependent clause begins with a subordinate conjunction or relative pronouns or a relative adverb.
  • It leaves one wondering “what happened?”


  1. Where she went
  2. Before Khamisi arrived.
  3. After she abused me.


  • A compound sentence has two independent clauses.
  • An independent clause, as earlier discussed, has a subject and and a verb and expresses a complete thought.
  • The two independent clause forming a compound sentence are joined using a coordinating conjunction. At times, a semi colon is used.
  • The coordinating conjunctions are:
  • For
  • And
  • Nor
  • But
  • Or
  • Yet
  • So

These conjunctions can be best remembered by a handy mnemonic: FANBOYS.

  • Here is an example of a compoud sentence:

He works in Wajir, but he stays in Isiolo.

  • The sentence has two independent clauses: he works in Wajir and he stays in Isiolo.
  • But is the coordination conjunction joining the two clauses.

Other Examples

  1. Rose wanted to buy a dress, but she didn’t have enough money.
  2. They did not go to church, yet their parent advised them to.
  3. Do you want to go to Rongo or Homabay?


  • A complex sentence is made up of an independent clause and at least one dependent clauses.
  • A dependent clause lacks one of the elements that would make it a complete sentence.
  • The clauses making up the complex sentence are combined using a subordinating conjunction.
  • Here is an example for you:

Mobile phones have helped a lot since they came to the market.

  • The independent clause mobile phones have helped a lot is joined to the dependent clause since they came to the market.

More Examples in Sentences

  1. Although deer eat my crops, they are cute.
  2. Before you leave, give me your address.
  3. While I prefer a permanent house, my wife prefers a semi permanent one.


  • A sentence can either have a verb in active form or passive form.

Active Voice

  • In a sentence with an active verb, the subject performs the action denoted by the verb.
  • Here is a sentence where the subject is performing the verb’s acton.

James is writing the notes.

  • James is the subject doing the action “writing”.
  • Since the subject James does the action, the sentence is said to be in the active voice.

More Examples

  1. Richard locked the door.
  2. Akoth painted the room.
  3. He is buying the phone.

Passive Voice

  • A normal order of many active sentences can be changed, such that the subject is no longer active.
  • In the case above, the subject is being acted upon by the verb.
  • Here is an example for you:

The notes were written by James.

  • The subject is the notes.
  • it is passive as it is acted upon by the verb.
  • Since the subject is being acted upon, the sentence is said to be in a passive voice.

More Examples

  1. The door was locked.
  2. The room was painted by Akoth.
  3. The phone is being bought by him.

Changing a  Sentence from Active Voice to Passive Voice

Follow the steps below in order to change the sentence from active to passive voice:

  • Move the active sentence’s direct object in the subject’s slot.
  • Place the active sentence’s subject into a phrase beginning with the preposition “by” .
  • Add a form of the auxiliary verb “be” to the main verb and change the main verb’s form.



Change the sentences below to passive voice.

  1. Juliet changed the flat tire.
  2. Gregory painted the entire house.
  3. Who taught you Physics?
  4. No one answered my call.
  5. Who stole my bag?
  6. The hunter killed the antelope.
  7. They will send her a success card.
  8. The terrible news shocked everyone.





  • Worship
  • Ambush
  • Coven
  • A disguising
  • Bench
  • A conjunction
  • Blackening
  • Company
  • Stalk
  • A pity/a gang
  • Converting
  • Slate
  • Riches
  • Bench
  • Eloquence


  1. She is cleaning a room for stores.

She is cleaning a storeroom.

  1. He bought a new ruler for measuring up to 30 cm.

He bought a 30-cm ruler.

  1. June is the assistant class secretary for form two.

June is the assistant form two class prefect.

  1. We had to stop at the station for the buses.

We had to stop the bus station.

  1. Get me size of cables.

Get me  cable size.

  1. They bought it as there was reduction in cost.

They bought it as there was cost reduction.

  1. Students are given two breaks of twenty minutes.

Students are given two-twenty minute breaks.

  1. These are the plugs with three pins.

These are the three-pin plugs.

  1. The mechanic has carried two metal boxes for the tools.

The mechanic has carried two metal toolboxes.

  1. Are you the wife of my son?

Are you my daughter-in-law?



Exercise 1

  • Something
  • Anything
  • Anybody
  • Anywhere
  • Somewhere
  • Nothing
  • Everyone/everybody
  • Anywhere
  • Everyone/everybody
  • Somewhere


Exercise 2

  • He didn’t say anything useful.
  • There is nothing left.
  • No-one can answer this question.


  1. Henry passed the exams first time. Jane had to retake the exams twice.

Henry passed the exams the first time while/whereas Jane had to retake them twice.

  1. My sister likes Math. I prefer Chemistry.

Whereas/while my sister likes Math, I prefer Chemistry.

  1. It was raining. I didn’t get wet.

Even though it was raining, I didn’t get wet.

I didn’t get wet even though it was raining.

  1. I will be late today. There is jam in town.

I will be late today since there is jam in town.

Since there is jam in town, I will be late today.

  1. Njuguna passed the test. Njuguna did not revise.

Even though Nuguna did not revise, he passed the test.

  1. I will leave. There is someone to take care of the baby.

Now that there is someone to take care of the baby, I will leave.

  1. John is a boy. Mary is a girl.

John is a boy while Mary is a girl.

  1. Go to play. Call your sister.

Before you go to play, call your sister.

  1. I didn’t give the money to my sister. I gave the money to my cousin.

Rather than giving the money to my sister, I gave it to my cousin.

  1. You know him personally. You have to agree that he has done a lot for this country.

Whether or not you know him personally, you have to agree that he has done a lot for this country.



  • No,
  • Well
  • Hurry
  • Phew
  • Alas
  • Ahh


  1. The flat tire was changed by Juliet.
  2. The entire house was painted by Gregory.
  3. By whom were you taught Physics?
  4. My call was not answered by anyone.
  5. My bag was stolen by whom?
  6. The antelope was killed by the hunter.
  7. A success card will be sent to her.
  8. Everyone was shocked by the terrible news.




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