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PAPER 1 (1996)

1. Give two functions of the council of elders among the Akamba during the pre-colonial period.

(i) They had powers to declare war and make peace/prepared youth for war
(ii) They presided over religious and other ritual functions
(iv) They offered advice to the community when need arose
(v) They ruled the community / settle disputes. Any 2 points 1 mark each (2 mks)

2. State two factors which made it possible for the Arab traders to come to Kenyan Coast before 1500.

(i) Accessibility of the Kenyan Coast via the sea
(ii) Availability of funds to finance their journey
(iii) Availability of dhows
(iv) The Monsoon winds which powered their dhows to the coast.Any 2 points, 1 mark each (2 mks)

3. Give one contribution of John Krapf to the spread of Christianity in Kenya during the nineteenth century.

(i) John Krapf built a church in Rabai
(ii) Converted people to Christianity.
(iii) Translated the Bible into Kiswahili
(iv) Trained the first catechist who later spread the gospel.
(v) Encouraged other European / missionaries to come to Kenya.
(vi) This exploitation of Kenya led to the opening up of the interior for more missionary activities.Any 1 point, 1 mark each (1 mk)

4. Name the company which administered Kenya on behalf of the British government up to 1895

(i) The imperial British East Africa Company/ IBA Co (1 mk)

5. Identify two factors which enabled the White settlers to establish farms in the Kenya Highlands during the colonial periods.

(i) Government policy and support/ i.e. providing loans, land and labourers.
(ii) Favourable climate/adequate rainfall and temperature
(iii) Availability of transport/especially the railway and the feeder roads.
(iv) Fertility of the soil Any 2 points 1 mark each (2 mks)

6. Give two factors which led to the establishment of urban centers in Kenya during the colonial period.

(i) Development of transport network/the construction of the Uganda railway
(ii) Development of mining activities / Development of industries
(iii) Development of trade.
(iv) Development of agriculture
(v) Establishment of administrative centre. (Any 2 point, 1 mk each (2 mks)
7. State two objectives of the Kikuyu/ central association (KCA)

i) To advocate for the growing of coffee Africans
ii) To work towards the restoration of alienated Africans
iii) To have laws written in Kikuyu
iv) To pressurize the colonial government to abolish the racial segregation.
v) To pressurize the colonial government to abolish racial segregation.
vi) Respect of African culture & customs e.g. Circumcision/polygamy
vii) Agitating release of political prisoners e.g. Harry Thuku (2 mks)

8. Identify two ways in which the trade union movement contributed to the struggle for independence in Kenya.

i) Trade unions sensitized workers about the importance of joining political parties that struggled for independence.
ii) Trade unions contributed money to political parties to enable them sustain the struggle for independence.
iii) Trade unions organized strikes and boycotts to oppose some policies of the colonial government
iv) Trade unions provided relevant training ground for potential nationalist leaders.Any 2 points, 1 mk each (2 mks)

9. State two results of the development of railway transport in the Kenya during the colonial period.

i) It let to the loss of land among some African Communities.
ii) Facilitated the movement of goods and people
iii) Led to development of trade between Kenya and the outside world.
iv) Promoted the development of trade between Kenya and the outside world.
v) Led to the development of trade between Kenya and the outside world.
vi) Encouraged the coming setters to Kenya
viii) Promoted interaction between different African communities
ix) Provided a source of revenue
x) Open up the interior
xi) Building of industries.(2 mks)

10. Name two African Nationalist parties whose leaders attended the Lancaster House conference in London.

(i) Kenya African National Union (KANU)
(ii) Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU) Any 2 points, 1 mark each (2 mks)

11. Give two reasons why the District focus for rural Development was established in Kenya.
i) To plan and initiate development projects/programmes at District Levels.
ii) Liaise with the government in prioritizing development projects at the District level.
iii) Initiate income generating activation for the development projects in the district. (Any 2 point, 1 mk each (2 mks)

12. Name two parastatals organizations in Kenya than fall under the ministry of transport and communication,

i) Kenya ports authority/KPA
ii) Kenya Railways
iii) Kenya posts and Telecommunications
iv) Kenya airways.
Any 2 point, 1 mark each (2 mks)

13. What is the main function of opposition parties in Kenya?

i) To provide a system of checks and balances to the government of the day in order to guard against excess / to act a check on the actions of the government. Any 1 point, 1 marks each (1 mk)

14. Identify two types of direct taxes through which the Kenya government raises this revenue.

i) Export tax
ii) Import tax / custom duty
iii) Excise duty
iv) Sales tax
v) Income tax
vi) Value Added Tax (VAT)
vii) Payer/ Pay as you earn.

15. Which provision in Kenya constitution protects the wealth of individuals in the country.

i) The right to own property.
ii) The Bill of right.



16. a) what factors which made the cushites to migrate into Kenya during the pre-colonial period.

(i) Hostile neighbours in their homeland
(ii) Succession disputes/ feuds/ family conflicts
(iii) Search for pastured for their livestock.
(iv) Natural calamities such as drought/disease
(v) search for land for settlement
(vi) Population pressure
(vi) Spirit of adventure. Any 5 x1 marks

b) Explain five results of the settlement of the cushites in Kenya during the pre-colonial period.

(i) The cushites came with their own livestock and so encouraged livestock farming in areas where they settled.
(ii) Their settlement led to increased rivalry and conflicts for ownership of land
(iii) Some cushites who had been converted to Islam spread the religion in the areas where they settled.
(iv) The cushites attacked the Eastern Bantu communities who had settled at shungwaya, and forced them to move to their present homeland in Kenya.
v) The cushites intermarried with the communities they found in the areas where they settled.
iv) The cushites attacked the Eastern Bantu communities who had settled at shungwaya, and forced them to move to their present homeland in Kenya.
v) The cushites intermarried with the communities they found in the areas where they settled in Kenya. (There was increase in population)
vi) Trade developed between the cushites and the example they exchanged livestock products such as milk and butter with the Bantu and in return they obtained grains from the Bantu.
vii) The Bantu borrowed some to the cultural practices of the cushites e.g. Circumcision.
viii) Cushites learnt mixed farming. Any 5 x 2 marks


17. a) Why were the Portuguese able to Portuguese able to conquer the Kenyan Coast during the sixteenth century.

i) The Portuguese used superior weapons
ii) Lack of Unity among the Coastal communities e.g. rivalry between Malindi and Mombasa
iii) The Portuguese fought as one united found of people
vi) The Portuguese knew the Geography of the East African Coast very well after obtaining information form Vasco Da- Gama visit of 1498
vii) They had well trained soldier (5mks)

b) Explain five factors which led to the collapse of the Portuguese rule on the Kenyan Coast by the end of 17th Century.

(i) The harsh Portuguese rule provoked resentment from the coastal communities.
(ii) Coastal communities. Some coastal communities organized a series of revolts against the Portuguese colonial administrators embezzled revenue and so they made it difficult for Portugal to run their possessions on the Kenya coast/ inefficient / non committed administration.
iv) Trade along the Kenyan Coast declined therefore the Portuguese found retaining their control over the East African coast a liability.
v) The Portuguese settlements were attacked by the Zimba terrorists from the lower Zambezi valley who looted property and killed people. This made life difficult for Portuguese many of them and so those who survived were unwilling to continue to stay at the East African coast.
vii) The coastal Arabs and the Swahili obtained support from the Turks and Amani Arabs – their fellow Muslims who helped them to drive away the Christian Portuguese colonists
viii) Delay in reinforcement due to distance.
ix) Composition of other European powers.(Any 5 x 2)


18. a) Outline the five reasons which made the Nandi resist the imposition of British colonial rule over their territory.
i) They wanted to maintain their independence
ii) They wanted to protect their land
iii) They wanted to reserve their culture
iv) They did not want the Uganda railway to be constructed through their territory.
v) They want white people because according to their methodology, the people were a sign to bad omen.
vii) They wanted to protect their livestock Any 5 x 1 marks

b) Discuss the factors which led to the defeat of the Nandi

i) The British were supported by some of the local communities e.g. Somali and Maasai soldiers so the Nandi warriors were out numbered
ii) The British used superior weapons such repeater rifles while Nandi used spears and arrows.
iii) The British tricked the Nandi and used treacherous method for example in October 1905. The commander of the British troops in Nandi Territory, captain Mcinertz Hageb arranged to have a meeting with the Nandi Orkoiyot, Koitalel arap Samoei when he had already arranged to have him killed. The Orkoiyot was killed in cold blood by the British and this demoralized and weakened the Nandi.
iv) The British used scorched earth policy, they burned confiscated their livestock. The Nandi were deprived of the sources of their livelihood and this forced them into submission
v) Natural calamities the small pox epidemic which broke out in the 1890’s killed many of the Nandi and weakened their survivors.
vi) Lack of support from the neighbouring Kenyan communities such as the Abaluhyia and Luo. (Any 5x 2 marks)

19. a) What three factors have facilitated the formation of many political parties in Kenya since 1991?

(i) Amendment/Reating of section 2 a in the Kenyan constitution to allow the formation of other parties in Kenya.
(ii) External pressure from the international community
(iii) Internal agitation for multipart
(iv) End of the cold war/the collapse of the USSR made it possible for the USA to exert pressure on Kenya and other African countries)
v) Economic hardships within the country. Any 3 points 1 mark each (3 mks)
b) Explain the changes which have taken place in Kenya as a result for the introduction of multiparty democracy.

i) The introduction of Multi-arty democracy has led to the introduction of multiparty democracy.
ii) Kenyans have been provided with the opportunity to join parties of their own choice.
iii) It has promoted accountability and transparency on the part of the government
v) It has enhanced the implementation of economic reforms in the country (SAP)
vi) It has given the mass media people greater freedom to comment on what it happening in the country.
vii) It has created more political awareness and patriotism among the people.
viii) It has enhanced interaction among Kenyans of different ethnic backgrounds as various political parties compete for support.
Ix Has enhanced the application of rule of law in the country.(6×2 = 12 mks)



20. a) What are the constitutional duties of the president of Kenya.

(i) The president is the head of government chairs cabinet meetings.
(ii) Opens parliament at the start of every session.
(iii) Prorogues parliament.
(iv) Commander in charge of the Armed forces
(v) Received credentials form foreign envoys accredited to Kenya.
(vi) Appoints senior civil servants and dismisses/cabinet ministers/ nominated Mps.
vi) Represents the country in international fora.
viii) Confers in honours for distinguished/ services.
ix) Consents bills before they become law.3×1 mk

b) Explain six factors which have promoted National Unity in Kenya since 1963

i) The use of common languages English and Kiswahili which enable people of different ethnic groups to communicate.
ii) The establishment of National schools which enable pupils form different parts of the country to meet and interact/education integration of
iii) Intermarriage enables people of different ethnic backgrounds.
iv) Expansion of university Education which enables people/students from different ethnic groups to interact.
v) Expansion of job opportunities which enables people of different ethnic groups to meet and interact at their places of work.
vi) Development of urban centers has encouraged people from different ethnic background to meet and interact.
vii) Development of transport network has facilitated free movement of people in the country.
viii) Promotion of sporting and other cultural activities though which people of different ethnic groups interact/ Dishunding of tribal associations.
ix) The harambee spirit/Nyayo Philosophy which has made it possible for people of different ethnic group/religious background to work together on various projects
x) The establishment of settlement schemes which has made it possible for people form different parts of the country to meet and interact.
xi) Existence of the institution of presidency is one unifying factor.
xii) The use of the national flag which is recognized by all Kenyans.
xiii) The use of the National anthem which invokes the spirit of unity among Kenyans.
xiv) The coat of arms which is recognized by all Kenyans.
xv) One constitution

21. a) State three functions of the police force in Kenya.
(i) To maintain law and order
(ii) To investigate internal security
(iii) To provide Internal security
(iv) To control and direct traffic in the country
(v) To arrest and prosecute suspected criminals.
(vi) To mount a guard of honours for domestic and international dignitaries

b) Explain six duties performed by provincial commissioners in Kenya

(i) The PCs act as representatives of the president in their areas of jurisdiction.
(ii) The PC’s interpret government polices in their areas or jurisdiction.
(iii) The PC’s oversee the implementation of the government policies and programmes in their provinces.
(iv) The PC’s ensure that law and order is maintained in the provinces
(v) They issue permits for the holding of public meetings in their respective provinces.
vi) The provincial commissioners serve as chairpersons in the provincial security and intelligence committees.
vii) They are charged with responsibility of maintaining security to the area.
viii) They co-ordinate development programmes and services chairperson of the provincial development committees.
ix) They are in overall control of all government departments in their respective provinces.

22. a) Identify three functions of the attorney general of Kenya

i) The Attorney general is the Chief Legal adviser to the government
ii) Chief state prosecution
iii) Interprets the laws of Kenya
iv) Drafts government bills
v) Services as ex-officio member of parliament

b) Describe the structure of the court system of Kenya

(i) The judicial structure in Kenya consists of a system of courts which are arranged hierarchically form the lowest to the highest level.
(ii) The District Magistrates Court. This is the lowest court in Kenya which is charged with the responsibility pf trying civil and criminal cases within the district.
(iii) The Kadhi Court.This is parallel to the District Magistrate’s court in hierarchy. It arbitrates civil cases in which all parties involved are Muslims.
(iv) The resident magistrate’s court which has jurisdiction in both civil and criminal cases which originate form with in the province where the court is situated. It also has jurisdiction in respect to magistrates in respect to decisions made at District Magistrate’s court level.
(v) The chief magistrate’s court which has powers over all the resident Magistrate’s and District Magistrate’s courts. It supervises and oversees the work of the other courts in the country.
(vi) The High court of Kenya.This has unlimited jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases stemming from any party of Kenya.
vii) The court of appeal is the highest court in the country it listens to appeals from any court in Kenya Other courts Industrial courts- Rent Rent tribunal