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How the Grade 12 evaluation will differ from the Grade 9 assessment.

How the Grade 12 evaluation will differ from the Grade 9 assessment. According to Belio Kipsang, principal secretary for basic education, learners would be placed...





SECTION A  (25 marks)

1. Give the meaning of history

  • The study of man’s past events/activities

2. Identify one age-grade for elders among the Akamba

  • Junior elders / anake
  • Intermediate elders / medium Nthele
  • Full elders / Atumia ma Kivalo /Ithembo
  • Senior elders / Atumia ma Ithembo

3. State the first settlement area of the Luo during their migration from Sudan.

  • – Pubungu/Pakwach

4. Name one early Christian Missionary who worked in Kenya.

  • Johann Ludwig Krapf
  • Johann Rebman
  • Jacob Erhardt

5. State two characteristics of Independent Churches in Kenya during the colonial period.

  • They were formed/started by the Africans
  • They accommodated African cultural beliefs/values
  • Africans held senior positions/they were led by the Africans
  • The churches worked closely with the African political Associations

6. Identify the constitutional change that increased the number of African members to the legislative council in Kenya in 1957.

  • The Lennox – Body constitution

7. Identify one Asian who took part in the struggle for independence in Kenya

  • A.M. Jevanjee
  • Pio Gama Pinto
  • M.A. Desai
  • Makhan Singh

8. Name one African political party whose leaders attended the second Lancaster House Conference in 1962.

  • Kenya African National Union (KANU)
  • Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU)

9. Identify Two Education Commissions appointed by the government of Kenya to review the Education system since independence.

  • The Kenya Education commission/Ominde Commission of 1964.
  • The National Committee on Education objectives and polices/Gachathi commission of 1976.
  • The presidential working party on the second University/Mackay Commission of 1981.
  • The Kamunge Commission 1988
  • David Koeche Commission

10. Give the main reason why the government of Kenya introduced the Constituency Development Fund.

  • To speed up development/uplift peoples living standards in the constituencies.

11. State two ways in which the government has promoted the culture of the people of Kenya since independence.

  • Encouraging people to take part in traditional dances/music/festivals
  • Establishing/preserving cultural centres/sites
  • Licensing vernacular radio stations which enhance culture.
  • Encouraging the production/marketing of traditional handworks/crafts
  • Establishment of ministries of sports, gender and culture.

12. Identify two ways in which the government has promoted the culture of the people of Kenya since independence.

  • One must be 18 years old and above.
  • A person should be a Kenyan citizen with an identity card.
  • One must not have been convicted of any election offences or sentenced to imprisonment for a period of 12 months and above.
  • One must be of sound mind.

13. Give two special courts in Kenya.

  • Kadhi’s courts
  • Military courts/criminal marital
  • Juvenile courts/children’s courts
  • Industrial courts/special tribunals/rent restrictions/business premises tribunal, LSK

14. State two duties of the leader of Government Business in Parliament in Kenya.

  • Second bills moved by ministers.
  • Chairing committee meetings on all procedural motions.
  • Regularly consulting with the leader of official opposition.
  • Is in charge of the government’s debating team
  • Notifying the house on when to adjourn.

15. Identify two symbols of National Unity.

  • The National Anthem
  • The Coat of Arms
  • The Constitution
  • The National Flag
  • Parliament
  • The Presidency

16. Give two reasons that can make a registered person lose citizenship in Kenya.

  • If one is disroyal to the state.
  • If during war one trades/communicates with the enemy.
  • If one reveals the country’s secrets to another country
  • If one is sentenced for a period of twelve months within five years from the date of registration.
  • If one stays out of the country continuously for seven years without registering with the Kenyan embassy abroad.
  • If registration was obtained through fraud.

17. Give one type of human rights.

  • Economic rights
  • Political rights
  • Social/cultural rights
  • Solidarity rights

Section B (45 marks)

18. a) Give five reasons which influenced the migration of the plain Nilotes to Kenya during the pre-colonial period.

  • They moved in search of pasture and water for their livestock.
  • Due to outbreak of disease/epidermics
  • Pressure/raids from other communities forced them to move to safer areas.
  • Family/clan disputes forced them to migrate
  • There was over population/population pressure in their original homeland.
  • They moved due to drought/famine
  • The spirit of adventure made them search for new lands.

b) Explain five results of the migration and settlement of the Maasai in Kenya during the pre-colonial period.

  • They displaced some communities that they found in areas that they settled.
  • Their settlement led to increased population in the region.
  • They intermarried with their neighbours. This strengthened their relations.
  • Some section of the Maasai (Kwavi) became cultivators/assimilated
  • There was ethnic conflict due to cattle raids/land for settlement.
  • There was borrowing/exchange of cultural practices among the communities
  • There was increased trade between the Maasai and their neighbours.
  • They influenced the socio-political organization of the Nandi who created the institution of Orkoyoit similar to Oloibon of the Maasai.


19. a) Give three reasons why the early visitors came to the Kenyan Coast before 1500A.D.

  • They wanted to participate in the trade/control the commercial activities along the coast.
  • Some came as political/religious refugees
  • Some came as explorers/wanted to find out about the resources along the coast
  • They wanted to spread their religion.
  • They wanted to establish settlements along the coast

b) Explain six factors that contributed to the development of trade between the Kenyan Coast and outside world by 1900.

  • Availability of items of trade encouraged traders to come to the coast.
  • The high demand for goods/trade items from Kenyan coast by consumers in the outside world led to increased trade.
  • The existence of local trade among the Africans along the coast provided a base upon which Indian Ocean trade developed.
  • The Monsoon winds facilitated the movement of vessels/ships to and from the coast thus enabling the merchants to take part in the trade.
  • The Indian Ocean provided access to traders from Asia and Europe.
  • The relative peace/political stability provided conducive environment for trade.
  • The availability of credit facilities from Indian Banyans/money lenders enabled many people to take part in trade.
  • Existence of enterprising merchants at the coast/foreign lands promoted trading links enabled trade to flourish.
  • The natural harbours along the coast ensured safe docking of ships for loading and unloading of items of trade
  • Advancement in ship/boat building led to better sailing vessels thus increased trading activities to and from the coast.


20. a) State three socio-economic reasons why Britain colonized Kenya in the 19th Century.

  • To obtain raw materials for her industries.
  • To stop slave trade/establish legitimate trade.
  • To establish market for her manufactured goods.
  • To protect her trading empire from other European powers.
  • To protect Christian Missionaries who were already operating in Kenya.
  • To invest surplus capital in Kenya
  • To impose their cultivation/culture.

b) Explain six factors that contributed to the formation of Political Associations in Kenya before 1939.

  • Africans organized themselves to fight for the return of their land which had been alienated for Europeans settlers.
  • The association offered a forum for the Africans to demand representation in the Legco.
  • The introduction of the Kipande system limited their movement which was resented by the Africans.
  • Introduction of taxation was oppressive because it made Africans work for Europeans against their will.
  • They were meant to work for long hours and yet they received low wages.
  • Africans were against the introduced forced labour by colonial administrators.
  • The prohibition of the Africans to grow cash crop denied them participation in economic development of their country.
  • Racial discrimination practiced by the European created ill-feelings among the Africans.
  • The limited educational opportunities of the Africans made them to feel inferior.
  • The desire of Africans to maintain their independence without foreign interferences.
  • The introduction of the destocking policy/undermining African culture.


21. a) State three ways in which the government of Kenya facilitated the acquisition of land for Africans after 1963.

  • Resettling people in the irrigation schemes.
  • Encouraging people to form co-operative societies/land buying companies.
  • Opening up the former white highlands to willing buyers
  • Giving/providing loans to those who were willing to buy land.
  • Consolidation/adjudication of land to enable farmers to maximize production.
  • Issuing of land title deeds to make ownership legal/lease land transfers.

b) Explain six challenges facing the agricultural sector in Kenya today.

  • Poor infrastructure in some parts of the country has led to great losses of farm produce thus reducing earnings of farmers.
  • The unstable prices of agricultural commodities on the local/world market has discouraged farmers.
  • Various parts of the country have been hit by drought/famine thus forcing the government to provide relief food.
  • Farmers produce is often destroyed by pests after harvest leading to food shortages/poor storage.
  • Poor technology/use of traditional methods has contributed to low yields.
  • Politically instigated ethnic clashes have discouraged farmers from carrying out immense farming due to insecurity.
  • The population of Kenya has been growing faster than gains made in the agricultural sector.
  • Corrupt government officials have grabbed/sold research land thereby affecting the operations of research institutions/mismanagement of funds for agricultural development.
  • Farming has become a costly venture for most farmers are not able to meet the high costs of farm inputs.
  • Overproduction of similar agricultural products leads to wastage due to lack of buyers.
  • Shortage of agricultural extension officers has made it difficult for farmers to get advice on how to improve yields.
  • Mismanagement of cooperatives has impoverished farmers.
  • Competition from COMESA/Industrialized nations has frustrated Kenyan farmers.

Section  C (30 marks)


22. a) Give the structure of the provincial administration in Kenya.

  • The province is headed by a provincial commissioner.
  • The province is divided into districts each headed by a District Commissioner.
  • The District is sub-divided into divisions each headed by a District Officer/Divisional officer.
  • The Division is divided into locations each headed by a Chief
  • The location is then divided into sub-locations each headed by an Assistant chief.

b) Describe five functions of the president of the Republic of Kenya.

  • Being the head of state, the president represents the people locally and internationally.
  • Determines the parliamentary life/calendar by opening/prologuing/dissolving it.
  • Appoints the cabinet ministers/senior civil servants.
  • Chairs cabinet meetings where matters of national importance/policies are made.
  • Appoints senior officers in the armed forces in his/her capacity as commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
  • Leads the people of Kenya during national celebrations/important national functions.
  • Grants freedom/pardons a convicted person unconditionally.
  • Assents the bills passed by the National Assembly.
  • Attends/participates in parliamentary proceedings.
  • Receives/hosts heads/envoys of foreign countries who visit Kenya.
  • Can declare a state of emergency for a maximum of 14 days when the security of the country is threatened.
  • Confers honours on people who have rendered distinguished service.
  • Ensures that the constitution is safe guarded so that Kenyans enjoy their rights.

23. a) Give three reasons why the constitution is important in Kenya.

  • It defines the structure/outlines the functions and powers of various branches of government.
  • It clearly states the rights/responsibilities of individuals.
  • It spells out the responsibilities of those in power/limits their authority/promotes good governance.
  • It ensures equality of all Kenyans.
  • It is the basis of all legislation in the country.


b) Explain six factors that may undermine the administration of justice in Kenya.

  • Lack of impartiality during trials may lead to unfair judgement.
  • Censoring judges publicly on decisions made in court may influence the final judgement/political interference.
  • Corrupt practices in courts of law may lead to unfair/oppressive decisions.
  • Confining suspects in remand for longer periods without presenting then to a court of law for prosecutions.
  • Failure to protect the legal rights of the ordinary people when they conflict with the rich and powerful.
  • Lack of commitment/inability by the police to carry out thorough investigations on suspected criminal activities.
  • The inability of ordinary people to meet the costs of prolonged court cases.
  • Lack of knowledge regarding legal procedures hence find themselves implicated unfairly.
  • Failure by the legal officers to attend to cases promptly due to pressure of work/inadequate legal officers to handle the many cases.
  • Use of outdated colonial laws which do not address the current/contemporary issues/lack of modern technology.
  • Lack of one common law derails the effective administration of justice.

24. a) Identify five stages in the preparation of the national budget.

  • Each government ministry prepares its estimates.
  • The Ministries are forwarded to the ministry of finance.
  • The Ministry of Finance compiles the estimates into a single budget/the proposed budget.
  • The proposed/compiled budget is discussed by the cabinet.
  • The government announces the budget day.
  • The Minister of Finance presents/reads the budget before parliament.
  • Parliament discusses/debates/approves the budget.

b) Explain why it is important for the government to prepare the national budget annually.

  • It enables the government to identify sources of revenue that will be required to meet its financial obligations.
  • It enables the government to explain to the public that tax structure/set the tax levels.
  • It ensures that there is a balance in the country’s revenue and expenditure hence avoiding budget deficit.
  • The government is able to identify ways of spending without any wastage.
  • Parliament is able to monitor public resource utilization through its watchdog committees.
  • It enables the government to identify/prioritize the development projects to finance in the coming year.
  • The government is able to assess its performance in the previous year and improve where necessary
  • The government is able to set aside some funds to be used in case of emergencies in the course of the financial year.
  • The budget provides useful information to individuals/organizations that may be interested in keeping track of government expenditure/enhances accountability and transparency in the eyes of the public.
  • The government is able to win confidence among local and international development partners/donors through its plans and policies spelt out in the budget.
  • Ensure equitable share of resources and balanced development.