1. State the scientific theory that explains the origin of human beings.

  • The Evolution theory.

2. State two uses of stone tools by early people during the old stone age period.

  • For skinning animals after hunting.
  • For digging up roots
  • For cutting meat.
  • For sharpening bone /wood.
  • For scraping animals skins/softening.
  • For killing animals during hunting.

3. Identify the method used to plant cereal crops when early agriculture began.

  • The broadcasting method.

4. Name two metals that were used as currency in pre-colonial Africa.

  • Iron
  • Gold
  • Copper
  • Silver
  • Bronze

5. State one advantage of using the pipeline over vehicles in transporting oil.

  • The pipeline delivers oil faster than vehicles.
  • It is safer to transport oil by pipeline than vehicles. .
  • The pipeline ensures regular/continuous supply of oil to required areas/depots.
  • It is easier to maintain the pipeline than vehicles.

6. Give the two main items of the Trans-Sahara trade

  • Gold
  • Salt

7. Identify two social functions of the ancient city of Athens in Greece.

  • It was a cultural center/music/art/theatre
  • It was an educational center
  • It was a sports center.
  • It was a religious center.

8. Name the chartered company that was used to administer Tanganyika during the process of colonization.

  • The German East Africa Company.

9. Which was the main factor that unified the communities of the Shona Kingdom during the pre-colonial period?

  • The Mwari religious cult/mlimo/religion.

10. State two functions of the Lukiko in Buganda Kingdom during the 19th Century.

  • It advised the Kabaka.
  • It represented the wishes of the people.
  • It assisted in settling disputes/it acted as the final court of appeal.
  • It directed the collection of taxes/how the wealth of the Kingdom would be spent,
  • It was the law formulating body in the Kingdom.
  • They helped the Kabaka in general administration.


11. Give one economic reason which made European Countries to scramble for colonies in Africa.

  • To obtain raw materials for their industries.
  • To search for markets for the manufactured goods.
  • To acquire areas to invest their surplus capital.

12. State one way IN which the Ndebele benefited after the British-Ndebele War of 1893 to 1896.

  • The Ndebele Indunas were made headmen.
  • The Shona police were removed from Matabeleland.

13. Identify two economic results of the First World War.

  • European governments spent huge sums of money.
  • That was massive destruction of property
  • It led to economic depression/unemployment/starvation/inflation

14. Give two principal organs of the United Nations.

  • The General Assembly.
  • The Security Council.
  • The Economic and Social Council.
  • The Secretariat.
  • The Trusteeship Council.
  • The International Court of Justice.

15. Identify two ways in which Mwalimu Julius Nyerere promoted the development of education in Tanzania after independence.

  • He established the universities of Dar – es-Salaam and Sokoine.
  • He made Kiswahili the medium of instruction in schools
  • He made education to be free/compulsory primary education.
  • He popularized the philosophy of “Education for self-reliance”.
  • He introduced Adult education.

16. State one condition that a country should fulfill in order to become a member of the None Aligned Movement.

  • A country should be independent.
  • A country should not be a member of either NATO or WARSAW pact military alliance


17. Identify one parliamentary duty of the Monarch in Britain.

  • summons parliament after a general election.
  • Prologues parliament
  • dissolves parliament.
  • Assenting of bills.
  • Nominates members to the House of Lords .



18[a]. State five reasons why early people domesticated crops and animals during the neo-lithic PeriodDue to increased human population more food was required,

  • There was competition for food between human beings and animals.
  • Over hunting depleted stocks of animal on which human beings relied on for food
  • Hunting and gathering had become tiresome/insecure.
  • Calamities such as bush fire/floods destroyed vegetation/drove away animals.
  • Some crops and animals had economic value.
  • Animals were domesticated to provide security.
  • There was a change in climate which caused aridity/weather sometimes hindered gathering and hunting.

[b]. Explain five causes of food shortages in Africa today.

  • Many parts of Africa experience little or no rain at all over several years leading to crop failure arid hence food shortages/natural hazards.
  • The rapid population growth rate has overtaken food production rate resulting into food shortages.
  • Inadequate/food storage facilities had contributed to food wastages as farmers cannot store food for a long period.
  • Poor state of roads in many African countries hinders transportation of food from the areas of surplus to those of deficit.
  • Low prices of food stuff has discouraged many farmers who may have invested so much capital leading to food shortages.
  • Many farmers in Africa lack enough capital to buy required farm inputs and therefore do not undertake modem farming methods leading to low food production
  • Due to crop diseases and pests, a lot of food is destroyed either on the farms or in stores resulting to food shortages.
  • The emphasis on cash crop fanning at the expense of food crops has contributed to low food production leading to food shortages.
  • Environmental degradation through deforestation I overgrazing of animals has led to soil erosion leading to wasteland, hence low food production/desertification
  • Civil wars in many African countries have displaced people from their farms and therefore diverted their attention from farming resulting in food shortages.
  • Poor food policies have discouraged farmers as they are not given enough incentives incase of crop failure.
  • The young able-bodied persons migrate to urban centers thus leaving farming to the aged who are not able to contribute much towards food production.
  • HIV and AIDS pandemic has impacted negatively on the labour force in food production.
  • Poor land tenure system /land fragmentation has reduced the acreage that would have been used for food production.
  • Many farmers have abandoned the growing of drought resistant crops which would be used in times of food scarcity.
  • Over-reliance/dependence on famine relief food and other forms of aid has made people not to look for permanent solutions to food shortages.
  • Lack of modem farming methods

19. [a] Give three problems faced by factory workers in Europe during the Indus trial revolution.

  • They were paid low wages/salaries.
  • They worked for long hours.
  • They were exposed to accidents.
  • Accident victims were laid off without compensation.
  • Inadequate housing made them live in slums.
  • They suffered from diseases due to poor sanitation/pollution.

[b]. Explain six factors that have promoted industrialization in South Africa.

  • The availability of many sources of energy to provide the required power of industrialization.
  • The existence of varied mineral resources to sustain the process of industrialization.
  • The presence of well developed transport network/infrastructure to facilitate the movement of raw materials and finished industrial goods to the market.
  • The availability of both internal and external markets for their manufactured goods.
  • The availability of both skilled and unskilled manpower required for industrialization.
  • The availability of capital generated from South Africa trade in other goods has enabled her to set up industries.
  • The government’s sound industrial policies which encouraged both local and foreign investors to boost industrialization. .
  • The high quality of goods has led to increased demand for South African manufactured goods.
  • The prevailing stability in the country since the end of apartheid era has created a conducive environment for industrial development.

20. [a] Give three methods used by European powers to establish colonial role in Africa.

  • Military conquest I expeditions
  • They signed treaties I agreements with African rulers/diplomacy/collaboration
  • Deception I treachery I luring Africans with European goods
  • Chartered trading companies.
  • Laying off communities against each other in order to weaken and cause disunity among them /divide and rule.

[b]. Explain six results of the Buganda Agreement of 1900.

  • It led to loss of independence.
  • Introduction of Christianity and European influence in Buganda.
  • Islamic influence declined in Buganda.
  • Buganda got protection from the British against their traditional enemies.
  • Kabaka’s powers were reduced.
  • Kabaka gained some recognition and was referred to as his highness.
  • Baganda were given an advantageous position in the colonial administration and were used to conquer other communities.
  • The Kabaka was privileged in that the British would not impose any new tax on the Buganda without his consent.
  • The political institution of Buganda were recognized by the colonial government as retained.
  • The Baganda advanced more economically than other communities as they acquired European manufactured goods e.g. guns and cloth.
  • They benefited from western education and medicine.

21.[a].State three ways used by nationalists in Ghana to fight for independence. They formed political parties.

  • They used boycotts/demonstrations/strikes/go-slows.
  • They organized political rallies to mobilize mass support
  • They used newspapers to articulate their views.
  • They used the legislative council.
  • They composed songs /poems to attack colonialism.
  • Use of trade unions.
  • Use of international fora

[b]. Explain six factors that led to the development of African Nationalism in Ghana.

  • Inadequate African representation in the Legislative council caused discontent among the Ghanaians.
  • Loss of powers by the traditional African chiefs created discontent against the colonial government
  • The need to guard against possible land alienation by the British united the Africans.
  • Introduction of taxation by the colonial government was resented by Ghanaians.
  • The meagre earnings by Africans from the sale of cocoa to Europeans created discontent among them. .
  • The order by the colonial government that farmers uproot their cocoa due to prevalence of the “swollen shoot” disease upset them.
  • The involvement of the ex-servicemen in the second world war inspired them to fight for their independence.
  • The attainment of independence by India and Pakistan in 1947 encouraged the Ghanaians to demand for their right to govern themselves.
  • The existence of young educated Ghanaians who had understood the ideas of democracy/freedom who inspired the masses towards a worthy cause.
  • High rate of unemployment among the Africans created resentment /discontent.
  • The United Nations Charter’s declaration of the importance of political independence for all people inspired the Ghanaians.
  • The charismatic leadership provided by Kwame Nkrumah and other leaders united the people in their struggle against colonial domination.
  • The selective granting of trading licenses to Europeans traders while denying the same to the Africans created discontent.



22. [a] Give three conditions which one had to fulfill in order to become a French Citizen in Senegal

  • Literature/able to read and write in French
  • Able to speak in French
  • Be a Christian
  • One must have worked in the French Civil Service/be loyal in the French
  • Government/military service.
  • Practice monogamy

[b]. Explain six differences between the use of British indirect rule and the French assimilation policy.

  • The British used traditional rulers as chiefs while the French appointed assimilated persons to become chiefs.
  • African traditional rulers under British rule retained most of their powers whereas chiefs under French rule had limited powers.
  • British colonies were administered as separate territories while the French colonies were administered as provinces of France.
    Most French administrators were military officers while the British administrators were both professional and non a professionals.
  • Africans in French colonies were represented in the French Chamber of Deputies while those in British colonies were not represented in the British House of Commons.
  • Laws used to govern French colonies were made in the chamber of Deputies in France while in British colonies, laws were made by the Colonial Legislative Assemblies.
  • Assimilated Africans in French colonies became full French citizens while in the Britishcolonies, educated Africans remained colonial subjects.
  • British indirect ruler preserved African cultures while assimilation undermined African culture.

23. [a] State the role played by United States of America in ending the Second World War

  • The U.S.A. provided modern military equipment to the allied forces.
  • She gave financial support to the allied forces.
  • She provided military personnel to the allied powers.
  • U.S.A. blockaded the Panama Canal against the axis powers.
  • She dropped atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki which forced Japan to surrender.

[b]. Explain six causes of the Cold War after 1945.

  • The disagreements between the Soviet Union and the United States of Africa over reduction of arms led to arms race.
  • The occupation of Eastern Europe by Soviet Union caused fear among U.S.A. and its allies in Western Europe.
  • The ideological differences pursued by the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. created mistrust/suspicion among them leading to hostility.
  • The domination of both United Nations by United States of America and her allies was checked by U.S.S.R. through the use of her veto power thus increasing the tension/the iron curtain policy.
  • The involvement of both United States of America and U.S.S.R. in European conflicts in the late I 940s created tension among them.
  • America’s marshal plan to revive European economies after the war made U.S.S.R to counteract by forming a similar one, COMECON thus enhancing tension.
  • Formation of military alliance/N.A.T.O by United States of America and her allies led to U.S. S.R. and her allies to form a similar alliance, -Warsaw pact thus intensifying the rivalry.
  • Construction of Berl in War by U.SS.R. in Germany to block Western influence led to increased tension.
  • Differences over the status of Germans after World War II

24. [a] Identify three duties performed by the Secretary General of the new East African Community established in 2001.

  • Is the head of secretariat.
  • Authorizes expenditure on be half of the members,
  • Is the secretary to the summit/take minutes.
  • Keeps records of the proceedings.
  • Implements decisions adopted by East African Community Summit,
  • Prepares agenda for the meeting.

[b]. Explain six benefits of the new East African Community established in 2001 to its members.

  • There is a wider market for different types of goods produced by each member state.
  • The citizens of member states buy goods at fair prices due to low tariffs levied on goods.
  • Opening of border/establishing a common visa/East African passport has boosted free movement of people within the region.
    The community provides a forum for heads of states to discuss issues harmoniously, thus promoting mutual understanding /co-operation /friendship
  • There are employment opportunities for people of member countries in the established common services.
  • Establishment o f the common market are ate room for enhanced economic development of member countries/spurs greater industrial growth.
  • The member countries are working together towards establishing East African Federation in order to apply common laws.
  • There is improvement in transport and communication network to facilitate the movement of people and goods.




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