1. State two ways in which the study of History and Government promotes a sense of patriotism
    in the learner
    It enables one to acquire a positive attitude towards the country.
    It enables one to be a responsible citizen.
    It enables one to become loyal to his/her country.
    It helps one to develop positive values.
  2. Name the community in Kenya that belongs to the Southern Cushites.
    the Dahallo (Sanye)
  3. State two political functions of the Oloibon among the Maasai during the 19th century.
    He administered the Maasai land/acted as unifying factor.
    He settled disputes.
    He declared war against his enemies/Adviced and blessed worriors.
    Advised the Council of Elders.
  4. Give two ways through which knowledge in marine technology facilitated the coming of the early visitors to the Kenya Coast.
    It enabled them to use the compass to sail.
    It facilitated the construction/use of boats.
    It enabled them to develop/apply the skills of map reading. .
  5. Identify the town that was established by missionaries in Kenya as a center for freed slaves during the 19th century.
  6. State two ways in which the National Accord and Reconciliation Act, 2008 affected the corn position of the Government in Kenya.
    It created a coalition government.
    It created the office/position of the Prime Minister.
    It created the offices/positions of the two deputy prime ministers.
    It increased the number of ministers/cabinet ministers.
  7. Give two reasons why the British used the Imperial British East African Company (IBEA) to administer its possessions in Kenya.
    It was familiar with the area.
    They lacked a clear policy on the administration of colonial possessions.
    They lacked enough personnel.
    They lacked sufficient funds/inadequate funds.
  8. Identify two ways in which the results of the collaboration of the Maasai with the British was similar to that of the Wanga.
    The British recognized their leaders.
    Both communities lost their independence.
    The people of both communities were hired as mercenaries.
    Both communities got material gains/rewards.
  9. Give one way in which the construction of the Uganda railway speeded up the colonization of Kenya.
    It enhanced the transportation of troops/administration.
    It open up the country to European settlers.
    It led to forceful displacement/loss of land by some communities.
  10. Give the main political contribution of Christian missionaries in Kenya during the struggle for independence up to 1939.
    They represented the Africans in the Legislative Council (LegCo).
  11. Name the first African to be appointed a minister in Kenya by the colonial government.
    B. A. Ohanga
  12. State the main result of the Lyttleton constitutional amendment of I 954 .
    It allowed for the formation of Multi-racial government/society.
  13. Identify the leader who stepped down as the president of Kenya African Union for Jomo Kenyatta.
    James Gichuru
  14. State two ways in which the Harambee spirit promotes national unity in Kenya.
    It encourages people to work together.
    It promotes cooperation.
    It promotes equity in the distribution of resources.
    It enhances interaction of the people.
    It promotes patriotism.
  15. State two ways through which the Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies in Kenya benefit their members.
    They give loans/credit facilities.
    They provide banking facilities/saving facilities.
    They provide benevolent/insurance services.
    They invest on behalf of members.
    They create employment.
    They educate members on financial management/investment.
  16. State one way through which the opposition political parties in Kenya check on the Government excesses.
    They point out the mistakes made by the government.
    They point out misuse of public resources.
  17. Give the main challenge facing Free Primary Education Programme in Kenya since its introduction in 2003.
    Over enrollment of the pupils





18.[a] Give five reasons for the migration of the Mijikenda from Shungwaya during the

  • pre-colonial period.
  • Due to attacks by the Oromo/Cushitic speakers.
  • Due to increased population.
  • Due to internal conflicts/family/clan feuds.
  • In search for land for cultivation.
  • Due to drought/famine.
  • Due to outbreak of diseases/epidemics.
  • Due to love for adventure.


[b] Explain five social effects of the migration and settlement of the Mijikenda in their present homeland.

  • They intermarried with other groups thereby strengthening relationships.
  • There was cultural exchange due to their interaction with other people assimilation/absorption.
  • There was an increase in population in the areas where they settled.
  • There were inter-community conflicts/wars in the areas they settled.
  • It caused redistribution of people in the areas they settled leading to further migration/displacement.
  • Some were converted to Islam due to their interaction with Arabs.
  • It led to the establishment of Kaya/villages which were fortified in order to protect themselves against external attacks.
  1. [a] State five factors which influenced the Akamba to participate in the long distance trade.
    The central/strategic location of the community between the coast and the interior.
    There existed items of trade.
    The existence of merchants/leaders/entrepreneurs.
    There existed trade routes between the coast and the interior.
    There existed markets for trade goods.
    The establishment of trade links with their neighbors/experience.
    There was demand for goods.
    Drought/unreliable rainfall experienced in their area/poor soils.

[b] Explain five factors which led to the migration African to the urban areas in Kenya during the colonial period.
The overcrowded/unproductive reserves created by the colonial government made living conditions difficult/unbearable thereby resulting into migrations to towns.
Availability of better social services/amenities/health centres/education provided in towns attracted them.
The taxes imposed on Africans forced them to migrate to towns in search of jobs.
Availability of infrastructure/piped water/paved roads/electricity attracted many people to towns as they hoped for a better life.
Employment/job opportunities attracted people to towns as it promised them better wages.
Mistreatment/frustrations by the labour/public works forced them to move to towns.
The widespread poverty in rural/reserves caused untold suffering thereby making them to migrate to town.
Loss of land/landlessness caused by the colonial land policies resulted into a state of despair thereby forcing people to move to towns.
African entrepreneurs wanted to take advantage of wider markets in towns


[b[ Describe five effects of the long distance trade on the people of Kenya.
It let the settling of people in urban centers that developed along trade routes.
It led to the emergence of a class of wealthy people along the coast/in the interior of Kenya/emergence of powerful chiefs & kingdoms.
It led to acquisition of foreign/new goods through trade/traditional industries.
People acquired /cultivated new crops leading to increased food production.
Some people were converted into Islam by Muslim traders.
People were introduced to money economy thereby making transactions easy.
African slave labour led to the development of plantation agriculture along the coast.
There was depopulation as many Africans were captured/sold as slaves.
It caused untold suffering/misery as people were raided/captured as slaves.
It opened up the interior leading to colonization.
The trade routes later developed into roads and highways.


20.[a] Give five factors that influenced the location of urban centers in Kenya during the colonial period.
Existence of administrative centers.
Existence of social amenities e.g, mission stations.
Availability of minerals/mining activities/industries.
Availability of security.
Agricultural activities.
Commercial activities/trading activities.
Availability of transport/communication.

21.[a] Give five factors that undermined the activities of the Kenya African Union in the struggle for independence?
Betrayal by some Africans undermined its activities/wrangles between moderates and radicals.
Insufficient/inadequate funds hampered its activities.
Opposition from the colonial government/settlers.
Repressive laws restricted its activities.
Arrest/detention of its leaders after the declaration of a state of emergency frustrated its members.
Lack of proper communication channels.
Banning of the party in 1953.
Ethnic divisions/fear of dominance by larger communities.
Lack of political awareness due to illiteracy.

[b] Describe five political roles played by the African elected members of parliament during the struggle for independence in Kenya.
They demanded for the release of detained/imprisoned African nationalists.
They networked with other Pan-Africanists to hasten the achievement of independence.
They aired/presented African grievances in international fora.
They formed political parties/movements to demand for independence/rights of Africans.
They popularized Kenyatta thereby making him acceptable as a national leader.
They took part in the writing of the independence constitution/Lancaster House.
They enlightened/educated other Africans on the need to struggle for independence.
They advocated for an increase in African representation in the LegCo.


22.[a] Give three conditions that a person should meet to qualify to be a Kenyan citizen by birth.
If the father or mother of the person is a Kenyan citizen.
A child found in Kenya who is/appears to be less than eight years of age and whose nationality and parents are not known.
A former Kenyan citizen by birth who reapplies to regain Kenya citizenship.

[b]. Explain six social rights of the individual in Kenya.
The right to health care services which are of a reasonable standards.
The right to housing facilities which are accessible and adequate.
The right to have adequate food which is of acceptable quality.
The right to regular supply of water which is clean and safe.
The right to appropriate social security to persons who are unable to support themselves and their dependents.
The right to accessible formal education in order to promote literacy.
The right to embrace culture/language of one’s choice regardless of his/her background.
The right to clean environment/sanitation which is free from pollution.

23.[a] State three qualifications for a person to be eligible for election as a member of the
National Assembly in Kenya
Must be a registered voter.
Must be literate.
Must be supported by at least 1 000 registered voters in the constituency/must be nominated by a political or an independent candidate.
Should uphold good moral values.

[b]. Explain six functions of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission of Kenya.
It registers prospective citizens who intend to participate in the elections.
It draws the boundaries of the constituencies/wards in all parts of the country in order to ensure equitable representation of the people.
It regulates nomination of candidates by political parties so as to ensure proportional nomination of members.
It settles electoral disputes other than petitions arising from the electoral process in order to ensure smooth/fair elections.
It registers that all candidates who intend to contest for positions during elections/announces and provides an election timetable.
It educates voters on their rights/importance of participating in the electoral process so as to make informed decisions.
It monitors/observes the elections in order to ensure transparency/honesty.
It regulates the amount of money spent by a candidate/political parties toprevent some candidates from influencing the voters.
It develops code of conduct for candidates/parties participating in elections with the view of checking malpractices.
It ensures compliance with the electoral laws by all the parties involved in order to promote free and fair elections.
It distributes/transports electoral materials to all polling stations.
It appoints election officials.
It announces the results and declares the winners.

24.[a] State three objectives of devolving the government of Kenya.

To promote democratic exercise of power.
To promote unity in the country.
To empower the people to participate in decision making /to make informed decisions.
To protect the interests of the minority/marginalized groups.
To promote equitable development in the country.
To enable people access services/take services closer to the people.
To decentralize state organs/functions from the capital.
To enhance checks and balances/accountability.

[b] Explain six ways in which the county governments raise their revenue.
They impose property rates within their territories to enable them raise revenue for their operations.
They charge for the services they render to the residents of the counties in order to generate income.
They are allocated part of the annual national revenue in order to supplement their supplement.
By borrowing loans from the national government international organizations to finance development projects.
They levy taxes on the services/goods generated in the county to finance their activities.
Through licenses granted to businesses/services operating in the counties.
By charging fees for the use of the counties property/fines.
By renting property/houses to people in order to raise funds for development.
Through grants e.g. local and external sources.




Giving back to the Society by using all resources available to help young people move up in academic ladder and also change the upcoming society.
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