Importance of a well equipped kitchen, it helps save energy, time and money.
Classes of kitchen equipment
- Large kitchen equipment Examples:
- deep freezer,
- microwave ovens
- food processors and other appliances.
Cookers and cooking facilities
- Electric cookers,
- Gas cookers,
- Charcoal jikos,
- Oil stoves and traditional three stones.
- Should have any mechanical defects,
- Should be bought from reliable dealers and installed by qualified persons
- Easy to operate
- can’t be used in absence of electricity,
- risky if not carefully used.
- colour should rhyme with colour scheme,
- should have an attractive and durable finish that is smooth and easy to clean,
- easy to control mobs,
- should enable one to use different methods of cooking e.g baking, grilling and surface cooking,
Use and care of gas/electric cookers
- wiping cooker using a cloth wrung out of warm soapy water (use a mild abrasive e.g vim for stubborn stains),
- avoid pouring cold water on coils/elements while they are hot because a sudden drop in temperature can crack them,
- to avoid fuel wastage, flat pans that fit to be used.
Advantages of a gas cooker
- can be used anywhere,
- it is quick to use,
- clean in use,
- it is locally and readily available.
- needs a lot of attention,
- can be a source of fire if not used carefully,
- has no gas gauge,
- embarrassing when one has no extra cylinder if gas is finished when cooking.
- use charcoal, plant and animal waste e.g coffee husks, saw dust, cowdung etc.
Use and care of charcoal jiko
- avoid too much charcoal because it prevents combustion,
- wiping and oiling frequently if it is a material that rusts,
- avoid using it in a non ventilated room because it releases CO2 that is poisonous.
- putting charcoal off if not easy,
- emptying ashes,
- screen off cooking place with a large house for safefy.
Advantages of charcoal jiko
- used anywhere,
- it is a bit cheap,
- can be used in doors/outdoors.
Disadvantages of charcoal jikos
- messy if not well used,
- a lot of attention needed,
- if not a ventilated room so produced can cause suffocation / death.
Three stoned cooking faulty
- readily available in rural areas,
- can be indoors/outdoors,
- when dry it burns very fast without producing smoke and so food cooks quickly,
- helps warn the room,
- it is cheap and effective,
- leads to desertification because of cutting down trees,
- needs a lot of attention,
- slower than gas and electric cookers,
- needs a lot of storage space because it is bulky,
- produces a lot of smoke of wet,
- messy and sooty,
- food can be smoky in taste and smell.
Oil / paraffin stoves
- one burner, two burner, four burner
- pressure stove.
- they need little paraffin
- can be very dangerous.
- are noisy
Advantages of paraffin stove
- it is locally and readily available,
- it is cheap and easy to carry,
- are clean if well used
- paraffin catches fire easily,
- paraffin is smelly (and can get into food) because of unburnt oil,
- smoky if dirty wicks are used so should be cleaned frequently.
Care of paraffin stoves
- clean wicks frequently,
- trimming tops,
- cleaning the stove with a cloth wrung out of warm soapy water,
- cleaning chimney, holder and burner with old newspaper, tissue paper and soft paper,
- ensuring all holes have wicks,
- cleaning framework,
- drying of stove properly,
- ensuring the stove has oil otherwise it can rust.
- suit the space available,
- should suit the family size,
- internal storage arrangement,
- size of frozen food compartment,
- repair expert and spare parts should be available,
- should be durable,
- consider fuel available, if its gas buy one operated by gas if electricity but one generated by electricity,
- consider the cost.
Small electric kitchen equipment
- food mixers,
- sandwich – makers
- coffee maker,
- microwave ovens
Kitchen factory/food processor it is an appliance that makes food preparation easy, faster, and enjoyable.
Can have a number of attachments fitted e.g potato peeler, blender, juicer, mixer, slicer
- can be for mixing flour mixtures, whisk cream,
- mince, make juices etc,
Choice, use and care of kitchen factory
- electricity should be available,
- size should suit the work,
- should be one that is affordable,
- workmanship should be good
Care and cleaning of food processor –
- put off after use,
- don’t run it when it has no food,
- avoid overloading blender, slicer and mixer,
- wipe off spills immediately,
- follow manufacture’s instructors,
- clean according to material, – avoid wetting motor and wiring
- serving frequently.
Automatic rice cooler
- its like a sauce pan built in hot plate,
- 2nd bowl fits inside and it fitted with tight fitting lid,
- outer part made of enamel inner part alumiunium,
choice, use and care of an automatic rice
- size should be suitable,
- should to clean,
- measure rice (pick and wash),
- put rice and water in the pan,
- put the pan in the outer container, put the lid, plug the cable into socket,
- switch on by firming cooler,
- it switches itself off when rice is ready.
NB:- (i) hot button should be kept on,
(ii) lid to be carefully removed for condensed water.
- it is sealing sandwich for cracks,
- uses electricity,
- has a cover and bottom part.
- Sandwich are toasted and cut automatic
- Sandwich take 2/3 minutes
Cleaning and care of sandwich makers.
- Cleaning inside after use with a clean cloth when warm.
- Avoid washing it.
- Wipe with damp cloth wrung out of soapy water and rinse well if very dirty.
Outside to be cleaned depending on the material.
- vertical type is common,
- toasts one/two slices,
- when ready slices pop up and toaster switches off.
Toasted bread is better because starch is converted to textrim that is easier to digest. It has a temperature indicator low, medium and high for different browning.
- Avoid sharp instruments when it on because they may spoil it/cause shock.
- have an automatic cut out that makes kettle not dry, – made of aluminium, stainless steel or chrome plate, – base has electric element that heat water.
choice and care:- –
- buy what is affordable,
- avoiding putting on when it is dry,
- not placing on a hot plate,
- cleaning the inside frequently with a cloth wrung out, – cleaning outside according to material, – not dipping it in water.
- for making pancakes,
- takes 2-3 minutes,
- inside has reflon finish, outside one is stainless steel,
SMALL KITCHEN EQUIPMENT
- potatoes peelers,
- whisks and potatoe mashers,
- surface cooking utensils e.g saucepans, sufuria, oven cooking dishes like casseroles and baking pans,
- small electrical appliances e.g sandwich makers, coffee makers, toasters, food mixers, and blenders.
Types of small kitchen equipment
- cutlery e.g knives, forks and spoons
- should be suitable size and shape
care care needed:
- washing in warm soapy water,
- rinsing well,
- drying with non fluffy cloth,
NB:- Avoid living water on cutlery to keep off silver water marks
- choose according to function.
- Should be ones with high carbon stainless steel material for blades,
- firmly fixed handle,
- handle made of wood, plastic, hard rubber or metal,
- should be ones that don’t rust, – should be desirable.
- for general cutting, chopping, and peeling.
Care of knives:-
- should be cleared separately in warm soapy water,
- rinsing well,
- drying well,
- storing properly,
- avoid exposing blades to too much heat, why: they loose shape cutting affected areas.
- sharpening if necessary.
- should be attractive,
- well moulded and smooth,
- should stand some degree of temperature, –
- for kitchen items, e.g drinking glasses, water jugs, measuring jugs, plates and bowls, cups and saucers, casserole, mixing casserole, mixing bowls, ornamental, e.g flower vessel.
- avoid dropping/banging/subjecting to any pressure,
- not exposing to too much heat,
- not sticking them together,
- washing them separately in warm water,
- rinsing well,
- drying on a racks that’s cleared,
- don’t use abrasive to avoid scratching glass.
- should have a smooth and attractive finish,
- should be appropriate in weight and size,
- to be plain and simple in design – easy to clean.
- avoid already scratched equipment and one with attractive colours and designs.
- spraying on metals and baking them at high temperature,
- used for interior and exterior finishes of plates, serving bowls, freezers etc
- avoid banging and knocking because they chip and rust,
- wash in warm soapy water,
- rinse and dry well,
- mild abrasives to remove stains.
- should be ones that can withstand heat e.g sunlight.
- should be smooth, firm and able to retain shape,
- should be ones that peel and become discoloured with use.
- for basins, buckets, plates, cups, jugs, mixing bowls, cutlery etc.
- use warm soapy water to wash,
- should be rinsed and dried well under a shade,
- avoid abrasives to be avoided when cleaning,
- avoid exposing to dry heat, they will be spoilt
- discolorations should be removed by a good bleach.
Cooking pots and pans:-
- are from metals e.g aluminum, stainless steel with copper allys and iron coated with enamel, – pots made of clay/cast iron,
- are in a variety of sizes and shapes,
- should be ones that can balance well on the cooker,
- a thick base and walls for even distribution of heat,
- should have a well fitting lid, – should have a smooth finish
- to be well moulded and no cracks.
Use of pans and pots,
- surface cooking,
- to be washed according to type e.g aluminum ones in hot camp,
- a mild abrasive to be used,
- use steelwool for stubborn stains,
- sieve improvised cleaning materials in order to prevent surface scratchings. – rinsing should be done well, – drying and storing appropriately.
- clean in warm soapy water,
- avoid harsh abrasives, drying to be done well and same to storms.
- plain hot water to be used not soapy because it leaves an unpleasant smell as a result of the porosity of the material.
- to be rinsed properly and dried before storage.
Baking tins and trays
- aluminium most preferred why? They don’t rust.
- Choose on different sizes and shape,
- should have dark finishes and strong because they absorb heat,
- for baking
- Scrap off foods while hot,
- Soaking in hot soapy water,
- Rinsing well, drying well and storing, –
- Rub with oil to prevent rusting.
- to suit intended use,
- those from plain wood are the best,
- shouldn’t have any unpleasant smell
- chopping board, – spoons,
- rolling pans.[
- food to be scrapped off with a knife back,
- scrabble along the grain,
- use warm soapy water,
- rinsing and drying with a cloth wrung from cold water,
- drying in an airy place, – don’t soak because it can crack,
- avoid burning or charming kitchen equipment.
- avoid tenting,
- avoid soaking and store in dry place.
Safety precautions when handling kitchen equipment
- avoid buying family equipment because cane cause accidents e.g shock,
- the dealer should demonstrate on the use of buying appliance if possible,
- equipment to be used for the right purpose and manufacturers instructions to be followed,
- serving of the equipment especially electrical ones,
- clean, dry and store them depending on type, use and material,
- check on leaking gas because it can cause poisoning and fires,
- avoid handling them with wet hands,
- all equipments that aren’t in use to be stored away in order to avoid overcrowding the kitchen,
- gas taps to be switched off when not in use,
- children not to be left in the kitchen alone,
- clean and sharp knifes to be used because dirty and blunt they can cause cuts, 12) pressure cookers to be handled with great care, they can cause scalding.
IMPROVISED KITCHEN EQUIPMENT
- perforated tins as graters but avoid ones which had contained poisons,
- Plates/grease proof paper – use banana leaves that can be planted stitched/tied together,
- Charcoal cookers used if there is not fridge,
- Sufuria with tight fitting lid where there are no steamers,
- kitchen floor mops/dusters from old sheets blankets/khanga pieces,
- wires for fork/skewers,
- plastic containers for mugs salt/pepper shakers/floor dredgers, – a stand constructed for draining utensils,
- large sufuria with sand inside and as …. with charcoal fire, – a debe for an oven that uses firewood/charcoal. – smooth glass bottle for a rolling pin, – hard stone for a knife sharperner.
ALL HOMESCIENCE NOTES FORM 1-4 WITH TOPICAL QUESTIONS & ANSWERS