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SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND:A.SULPHUR (S) Sulphur is an element in Group VI(Group 16)of the Periodic table . It has atomic number 16...









Not all syllables in a word are given equal emphasis. By the same token, not all words in a sentence are said with equal length.

The relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or certain words in a sentence is what we refer to as stress.

You say a syllable or a word is stressed when it is said louder or longer than the rest.

Stress is studied in two levels:

  • Word level; and
  • Sentence level.

Stress at the Word Level

A part of a certain word when said louder or longer then it is stressed.

Rules of Word Stress

  1. For two-syllable nouns and adjectives, stress the first, for example

Cloudy  carton    table

  1. For verbs with two syllables and prepositions, emphasize the second syllable, for example
  2. Words with three syllables.
  • Those ending in –er, -ly, emphasis put on the first syllable, for example,
  • Stress the first, for those ending in consonants and in –y, for example,
  • Stress the last syllable if the word ends in –ee, -ese, -eer, -ique, -ette, for example,
  • Look at the ones with the suffixes below, where stress is placed on the second,

ary: library

Cial: judicial, commercial

-cian: musician, clinician

-tal : capital, recital

Stress is important in studying the heteronyms. A pair, or group of words is referred to as heteronym when those words are spelled the same way but have different pronunciation and meaning. We have two main categories of heteronyms:

  • Noun- verb pairs; and
  • Verb -and-adjective pairs.

We stress the first syllable if noun and the second if verb.

Examples of noun-and-verb pairs are included in the table below:

Noun Verb Noun Verb
Abuse   Graduate  
Record   Cement  
Convert   Wind  
Abuse   Sin  
Contest   Produce  
Duplicate   Excuse  
Polish   Insult  
Rebel   Permit  


In sentences;

  • Many factories produce the produce we import.
  • Allan became a convert after deciding to convert to christianity.

Sentence Stress

Sentence stress is accent on certain words within a sentence.

Most sentences have two basic word types:

  • Content words which are the key words carrying the sense or meaning- message
  • Structure words which just make the sentence grammatically correct. They give the sentence its structure.

Look at the sentence below:

Buy milk feeling tired.

Though the sentence is incomplete, you will probably understand the message in it. The four words are the content words. Verbs, nouns, adjectives, are content words.

You can add words to the sentence to have something like:

Will you buy me milk since I am feeling tired?

The words: will, you, me, since, I, are just meant to make the sentence correct grammatically. They can also be stressed to bring the intended meaning.

Now let’s study the sentence below:

Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt.

Each word in the sentence can be stressed to bring the meaning as illustrated in the table.

Sentence Meaning
Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt. She doesn’t think that, but someone else does.
Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt. It is not true that Joan thinks that.
Joan doesn’t thinkAkinyi stole my green skirt. Joan doesn’t think that, she knows that.
Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt. Not Akinyi, but someone else. Probably Njuguna or Adhiambo.
Joan doesn’t think Akinyistole my green skirt. Joan thinks Akinyi did something to the green skirt, may be washed it.
Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt. Joan thinks Akinyi stole someone else’s green skirt, but not mine.
Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt. She thinks Akinyi stole my red skirt which is also missing.
Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt. Joan thinks Akinyi stole my green shirt. She mispronounced the word.


Exercise 1

  1. The words that follow can be nouns or verbs dependingon the stressed syllable. Use each as both the verb and noun in a single sentence.
  • Cement
  • Address
  • Permit
  • Content
  1. Underline the part of the word in boldface you will stress in each of the following sentences.
  • The boy has been asked to sert the de.sert.
  • My handsome cortwilles.cort me to the dance.
  • After updating my sume, I will re.sume my job search.
  • They have to testin the annual Math con.test.
  • If you vict me, I will remain a con.vict for 5 years.

Exercise 2

Each word in the sentences below can be stressed to bring the meaning. What will be the meaning when each word is stressed?

  • I love your sister’s handwriting.
  • You came late today.


  • It is the rise and fall of voice in speaking.
  • Intonation is crucial for communication.
  • In English there are basically two kinds of intonation: rising and
  • We can use arrows to show the intanotion – whether rising or falling. ↘ represents falling intonation while ↗ represents the rising one.

Falling Intonation

  • Falling intonation is when we lower our voice at the end of a sentence.
  • This usually happens in:

Statements, for example,

  • I like↘
  • It is nice working with ↘
  • She travelled to↘

W/H Questions

  • What is your ↘name?
  • Where do you ↘live?
  • How old are↘ you?
  • Who is this young↘ man?


  • Get out ↘
  • Give me the ↘
  • Close your ↘

Exclamatory sentences e.g.

  • What a wonderful ↘present!
  • How ↘nice of you

 Rising intonation

  • When we lower our voice.
  • Used in:
  • General Questionsg.

Do you visit them↗ often?

Have you seen ↗her?

Are you ready to ↗start?

Could you give me a↗ pen, please?


  • Alternative questionsg.

Do you want ↗coffee or ↘tea?

Does he speak↗ Kiswahili or ↘English?

  • Before tag questionsg.

This is a beautiful ↘place, ↗isn’t it?

She knows↘ him,↗ doesn’t she?

  • Enumeratingg.

↗One, ↗two,↗ three, ↗four,↘ five.

She bought ↗bread, ↗cheese, ↗oranges, and ↘apples.


Using an arrow, determine whether rising or falling intonation is used in the sentences.

  • This music sounds good.
  • I love watching horror movies.
  • My sister’s name is Amina.
  • Blue is my favourite colour.
  • Is that tv good?
  • Do you like that movie?
  • Are you hungry?
  • Get me my shoes.
  • Study your lessons now.
  • Are you insane?
  • How many more hours before you are done with your work?
  • Which novel is the best for you?
  • He is a little bit nervous, isn’t he?
  • You should listen to your parents’ advice.
  • Did you finish your homework?
  • Water is good for the body.
  • This is good!
  • What a crazy show.



  • Rhythm is the recurrence of a beat.
  • In poetry, it is the recurrence of a pattern that gives a distinct beat to a line(s) in a poem.
  • Rhythm is something that happens with regularity.
  • To create rhythm in a poem, a poet can use:
  1. Consonance which is the repetition of consonant sounds within the nearby words.
  2. Assonance which is defined as the repetition of vowel sounds within nearby words.
  • A word or phrase recurring.
  1. This is the repetition of initial consonant sounds in two or more words within a line.
  2. Rhyme which is the repetition of ending sounds, especially in two or more lines.
  • Study the poem below and identify ways in which rhythm has been achieved.

A sunshiny shower

Won’t last an hour.

Rain before seven

Clear by eleven.

March winds and April showers

Bring forth May flowers.


Won’t wash dishes.

Early to bed and early to rise

Makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.

  • Rhyme has been used. Several pairs of words rhyme. Examples include:

Shower and hour

Seven and eleven

Showers and flowers

  • Won’t and wash are alliterative (the sound /w/.
  • Consonance in the words “healthy” and ”wealthy”



Read the poem below and  identify how rhythm has been achieved in it.

My dog has a special twist,

She can’t go a day unkissed


She’s not a normal dog,

Her furs the colour of a log


Her tails as pointy as a stick,

She’d get a 10 from a critic.


Her body is as long as a telephone pole,

She’s the total opposite of a troll.


Her name is Roxie,

Also known as a Doxie.



Assonance and alliteration are sound patterns used in the poem. While assonance makes use of vowel sounds, alliteration makes use of consonant sounds. These sounds are repeated in the words close to one another.

Now read the poem below aloud by Steven Henderson.

Path Choices

Best, Boy, Believe

That, There, Two

Placed, Possible, Paths

Willing, Wanting, Waiting

Appraising, Asking, Applying

Lessons, Learned, Leads

Compass, Chosen, Course

Fools, Find, Fate

Sin, Street, Set

Driven, Determine, Destiny

Searching, Seeking, Seeing

Offering, Openly, Often

In the poem you realize there is repetition of the beginning consonant sounds. Look at the illustrations:

  • Best, Boy, Believes – sound /b/ has been repeated.
  • Placed, Possible, Paths – sound /p/ is repeated

This repetition of initial consonant sounds is alliteration.  Illustrate other instances of alliteration in the poem.

There is also repetition of vowel sounds in the words close to each other. Examples we have seen are:

  • Seeking, seeing – the sound /i:/ has been repeated.
  • Openly, Often – the sound /e/ has been repeated.

This repetition on vowel sounds in the nearby words is assonance . 


Further Practice

Pick out all the instances of assonance and alliteration in the poem that follows.

My Puppy Punched Me in the Eye

My puppy punched me in the eye

My rabbit whacked my ear

My ferret gave a frightful cry

And roundhouse kicked my rear


My lizard flipped me upside down

My kitten kicked my head

My hamster slammed me to the ground

And left me nearly dead


So my advice? Avoid regrets;

No matter what you do

Don’t ever let your family pets

Take lessons in kung Fu



Just like alliteration, consonance makes use of consonant sounds, only that these sounds are in in the inner parts of the words (middle or end, but not beggining).

There are illustrations for this in the two poems we have read. In the poem ‘My Puppy Punched me in the Eye’ there are the illustrations as follow.

  • rabbit, wacked – the sound /t/ has been repeated.
  • hamster slammed – there is repetition of the sound /m/

Note: Alliteration, assonance, and consonance don’t have to have the same letters – it is the sound that must be repeated.

Role Played by Alliteration, Assonance, and Consonance

  1. Provide musical rhythm.
  2. Make poem interesting.
  3. Make the poem easier to memorize.



Read the poem below and then identify, with illustrations, instances of alliteration, assonance and consonance.


            By John Chizuba

Black breweries braveness

In ink incorporative individualism

Those tinny tracers ticking Time

Be-little black braveness baselessly

Mirror my motion moves momentously

Directed diagonal deeply

Hurt humans heart heavy

Because better black believes

Dedication, determined destinies

Of our oddity, obviously occupied

We welcome world words with warrant

Blacks built braveness buxom butterflies

Enlightment enchanting ego enlarged

Decade braveness debut delightfully.



  • Register denotes the choice of language, whether that be formal or informal.
  • It is the choosing of appropriate language for the context.
  • There are factors that determine the language we use.
  • It is important to select the right language for the right situation.
  • The choice of register is affected by:
  • The setting of the speech;
  • The topic of the speech;
  • The relationship that exists between the speakers; and
  • The age.

The Setting

There are words we use depending on the field. There are those we use in the field of medicine, in the field of law etc. they are also those that we use at home when talking to family members. A chemist, for example, will ask for ‘sodium chloride’ while at the laboratory, while at home she will request for ‘salt’. At work place, people tend to use formal language while informal language at home.


  • If, for example, you want to ask for something valuable from a brother you would say: ‘I was wondering if you could lend me….’. This is a formal language even though it is your family member you are talking to.
  • When offering your boss tea or coffee, you will still use formal language for example: ‘Would you mind being served tea or coffee? ’ and to a friend you will say: ‘Tea or coffee?



There are words you use when speaking to different people in different situations. More often than not, an intimate couple will use words like ‘darling’, ‘honey’, etc. These words cannot be used to address your colleague at work place; or even your pastor.


There are ways to speak to a child and those of speaking to adults. To a baby, we use words like ‘popopoo’ while to an adult ‘long call’, etc.

The Words used in Different Fields

Field of Medicine

Some words used in the hospitals, clinics and other health stations include: X-ray, syringe, paracetamol, doctor, nurse, mortuary, patient, etc.

Police Station

Lockup, cell, bond, etc.


Aircraft, flight, air hostess, etc.

Information Technology

Computer, laptop, CPU, Monitor, software, hardcopy, hard disk, etc.


The words used by the teachers, students and others at school are: chalk, ruler, blackboard, senior teacher, deputy principal, dean of studies, etc.


Technical terms used by lawyers and in the courts of law include: adult probation, affidavit, alimony, Amicus Curiae brief, annulment, appeal, appellant, appellee, arrest, plaintiff, defendant, dismissal, oath, revocation hearing, learned friend, etc.


Read the conversation below and then answer question that follow.

Caller:Is this the Credex?

Receptionist:Yes, how may I be of help to you?

Caller:It’s Dorothy calling.

Receptionist:Oh, Dorothy! How is the going?

Caller: Lunch today?

Receptionist: Of course..

Caller: what time then?

Receptionist: After I have seen the deputy principal. There are packets of chalk I am supposed to deliver.

  • Giving the reasons, where is the Credex?
  • What is the relationship between the caller and the receptionist?
  • Explain the formality of the language the receptionist and the caller use.
  • Give illustrations for (c) above.



Have you ever stood in front of a big group of people to present your talk? Well here we shall learn how to prepare your speech and deliver it effectively.

Preparation for Speech Delivery

There are steps any speaker should follow in preparation for presentation of speech. They include:

  1. Doing some research on the topic to present. Get the facts about the topic. If you do enough research, your confidence level will be boosted.
  2. Practice in front of a group of friends or relatives. This can also be done in front of a mirror, or videotaping your rehearsals. You will be able to correct your gestures, postures etc.
  3. Write down the points about the topic on a note pad. You can refer to them when giving the speech.
  4. Plan on how to groom and dress decently. You should appear presentable to feel confident.


Grabbing and Keeping Audience Attention

Your opening determines how long your audience will listen to your presentation. Of they are bored from the beginning; the chance that your message will effectively get across is very little.

The most commonly used methods are:

  1. Asking a question. The question should make them think about the topic. For example, ‘How many of you would like to be millionaires?’
  2. Stating an impressive fact connected to the topic of your presentation. For example: ‘About 30% of Kenyans are millionaires.
  3. Telling a story closely connected to the topic. It should neither be too long nor intended to try to glorify the speaker. For example: “Dear audience, before I begin I would like to tell you a short story about Maina Wa Kamau became a millionaire. Don’t worry, it’s not too long. …..”

Other methods of beginning a speech are:

  • Using humour
  • Starting with a quote that ties with your topic.
  • Using sound effect.

Presentation of Speech

There are various techniques of delivering speech. They are what will ensure understanding of your message. Some of these techniques include:

  1. Use gestures effectively to reinforce the words and ideas you are trying to communicate to your audience. For example, when talking about love, you can use your hands to form a cup shape to indicate how tiny something is.
  2. Make eye contact with your audience members to study their reactions to you. If you sense boredom, you need to improve and if you sense enthusiasm, it will help pump you up.
  3. Use movements to establish contact with your audience. Getting closer to them physically increases their attention and interest, as well as encouraging response if you are asking questions.
  4. Your posture should be upright. The way you conduct yourself on the platform will indicate you are relaxed and in control. Do not lean or slouch.
  5. Wear appropriate facial expressions to show feelings and emotions. Smile to show happiness, for example.
  6. Speak loud enough to be heard by all your audience members.
  7. Pronounce the words correctly and speak clearly for your message to be understood.
  8. Pause at key points to let the message sink.

Stage Fright

Almost all speakers are nervous. Even the most experienced do. Fear of addressing a group is not wrong, but how we deal with it is what is possibly not good enough. Those speakers who seem relaxed and confident have learnt how to handle anxiety.

Symptoms of Nervous Speakers

An anxious speaker can be identified in case of:

  • Shaking hands
  • Sweating palms
  • Dry mouth
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Squeaky voice
  • Knocking knees
  • Facial flushes
  • Watery eyes
  • Mental confusions
  • jitters

Causes of Fear

  1. Past failures during presentation. Plan to succeed instead.
  2. Poor or insufficient preparation. Nothing gives you more confidence than being ready.
  3. Discomfort with your own body and movement.

Dealing with Anxiety

A speaker can try the suggestions below to deal with anxiety before and on the day of speech.

Before the day;

  1. Know your topic by doing adequate and thorough research. You will be sure of presenting accurate information and be able to answer questions asked by audience members.
  2. Practice delivering your speech several times. This helps you be sure of your organization of the main points.


On that day;

  1. Do some physical exercises like press ups, push walls, etc. to reduce anxiety.
  2. Use simple relaxation techniques like taking deep breath, tightening and relaxing your muscles, etc.
  3. Wear clothes that you feel confident in. when you feel good about of you feel, your confidence level is boosted. You don’t need to adjust your clothes or hair during your speech.
  4. Spot friendly faces in the crowd. These are people who give you positive feedback (e.g. nodding, smiling). Such faces give you encouragement to speak.
  5. Come up with ways to hide your anxiety. For example,
  • When mouth goes dry, drink some water
  • Incase of excessive sweating, wear clothes that will not allow your audience detect
  • If your hands shake, use gestures to mask the shaking.

Exercise 1

In the next three days, you are presenting a speech on the topic: Effects of HIV/AIDS.

  • Write down any three ways you would prepare for the speech delivery.
  • State the techniques you would employ to ensure your audience listens to you throughout and that they understand the message during the presentation.

Exercise 2

Makufuli is presenting his speech. Your friend, Makwere claims that Makufuli is not confident.

  • What could have warranted this claim?
  • State four reasons that could be behind Makufuli’s state?


  • Discussion is a process where exchange of ideas and opinions are debated upon in a group.
  • A group which comprises a small number of people is given a topic to discuss.

Preparation for Group Discussion

Do the following before you start the discussion:

  1. Select/choose group leaders. Choose the secretary to write the points down and the chair to lead the discussions.
  2. Research round the topic to make sure you have the points. You can get the points from the sources including:
  • Newspapers and magazines
  • Friends, relatives and teachers
  • Text books
  • Internet
  • Television
  1. Arrive early for discussions. It is advisable you do so so that you start early and finish early.
  2. Gather writing materials – pen and note book.
  3. Prepare with questions to ask.

Participating in a Group Discussion

Remember the tips below for success during the discussion:

  1. Learn to listen to each other and respond to what other people have to say.
  2. Speak with moderation. What you say is usually more important than how much you say. Quality is needed rather than the quantity.
  3. Back up each point you put across. You can explain your points in a number of ways including:
  • Providing facts or statistics to support it;
  • Quoting expert opinion;
  • Explain why said what you said; and
  • Referring to your own experience.
  1. Stay calm and polite. Use polite words like ‘May I ….?, please …, etc.’
  2. Take notes of important words and ideas.
  3. Speak clearly.
  4. Speak loud enough to be heard by all the group members.


The Common Discussion Mistakes

Having learnt what you should do during the discussion, let us now learn what under no circumstances y do. You should never:

  • Dominate the discussion;
  • Interrupt abruptly;
  • Be inaudible;
  • Carry out mini-meetings; or
  • Talk over each other.


You and your group members have been assigned the topic: ‘Responsibilities of a Good Citizen’ by your teacher of History and Government. You are supposed to discuss this before you give the presentation in two days.

  • State three ways in which you would prepare before you start discussing the topic.
  • How would you ensure your group members and yourself benefit from this discussion?




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