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SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND:A.SULPHUR (S) Sulphur is an element in Group VI(Group 16)of the Periodic table . It has atomic number 16...








Not all syllables in a word are given equal emphasis. By the same token, not all words in a sentence are said with equal length.

The relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or certain words in a sentence is what we refer to as stress.

You say a syllable or a word is stressed when it is said louder or longer than the rest.

Stress is studied in two levels:

  • Word level; and
  • Sentence level.

Stress at the Word Level

A part of a certain word when said louder or longer then it is stressed.

Rules of Word Stress

  1. For two-syllable nouns and adjectives, stress the first, for example

Cloudy  carton    table

  1. For verbs with two syllables and prepositions, emphasize the second syllable, for example
  2. Words with three syllables.
  • Those ending in –er, -ly, emphasis put on the first syllable, for example,
  • Stress the first, for those ending in consonants and in –y, for example,
  • Stress the last syllable if the word ends in –ee, -ese, -eer, -ique, -ette, for example,
  • Look at the ones with the suffixes below, where stress is placed on the second,

ary: library

Cial: judicial, commercial

cian: musician, clinician

tal : capital, recital

Stress is important in studying the heteronyms. A pair, or group of words is referred to as heteronym when those words are spelled the same way but have different pronunciation and meaning. We have two main categories of heteronyms:

  • Noun- verb pairs; and
  • Verb -and-adjective pairs.

We stress the first syllable if noun and the second if verb.

Examples of noun-and-verb pairs are included in the table below:

Noun Verb Noun Verb
Abuse   Graduate  
Record   Cement  
Convert   Wind  
Abuse   Sin  
Contest   Produce  
Duplicate   Excuse  
Polish   Insult  
Rebel   Permit  


In sentences;

  • Many factories produce the produce we import.
  • Allan became a convert after deciding to convert to christianity.

Sentence Stress

Sentence stress is accent on certain words within a sentence.

Most sentences have two basic word types:

  • Content words which are the key words carrying the sense or meaning- message.


  • Structure words which just make the sentence grammatically correct. They give the sentence its structure.

Look at the sentence below:

Buy milk feeling tired.

Though the sentence is incomplete, you will probably understand the message in it. The four words are the content words. Verbs, nouns, adjectives, are content words.

You can add words to the sentence to have something like:

Will you buy me milk since I am feeling tired?

The words: will, you, me, since, I, are just meant to make the sentence correct grammatically. They can also be stressed to bring the intended meaning.

Now let’s study the sentence below:

Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt.

Each word in the sentence can be stressed to bring the meaning as illustrated in the table.

Sentence Meaning
Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt. She doesn’t think that, but someone else does.
Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt. It is not true that Joan thinks that.
Joan doesn’t thinkAkinyi stole my green skirt. Joan doesn’t think that, she knows that.
Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt. Not Akinyi, but someone else. Probably Njuguna or Adhiambo.
Joan doesn’t think Akinyistole my green skirt. Joan thinks Akinyi did something to the green skirt, may be washed it.
Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt. Joan thinks Akinyi stole someone else’s green skirt, but not mine.
Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt. She thinks Akinyi stole my red skirt which is also missing.
Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt. Joan thinks Akinyi stole my green shirt. She mispronounced the word.


Exercise 1

  1. The words that follow can be nouns or verbs dependingon the stressed syllable. Use each as both the verb and noun in a single sentence.
  • Cement
  • Address
  • Permit
  • Content
  1. Underline the part of the word in boldface you will stress in each of the following sentences.
  • The boy has been asked to sert the de.sert.
  • My handsome cortwilles.cort me to the dance.
  • After updating my sume, I will re.sume my job search.
  • They have to testin the annual Math con.test.
  • If you vict me, I will remain a con.vict for 5 years.

Exercise 2

Each word in the sentences below can be stressed to bring the meaning. What will be the meaning when each word is stressed?

  • I love your sister’s handwriting.
  • You came late today.


  • It is the rise and fall of voice in speaking.
  • Intonation is crucial for communication.
  • In English there are basically two kinds of intonation: rising and
  • We can use arrows to show the intanotion – whether rising or falling. ↘ represents falling intonation while ↗ represents the rising one.

Falling Intonation

  • Falling intonation is when we lower our voice at the end of a sentence.
  • This usually happens in:

Statements, for example,

  • I like↘
  • It is nice working with ↘
  • She travelled to↘

W/H Questions

  • What is your ↘name?
  • Where do you ↘live?
  • How old are↘ you?
  • Who is this young↘ man?


  • Get out ↘
  • Give me the ↘
  • Close your ↘

Exclamatory sentences e.g.

  • What a wonderful ↘present!
  • How ↘nice of you


Rising intonation

  • When we lower our voice.
  • Used in:
  • General Questionsg.

Do you visit them↗ often?

Have you seen ↗her?

Are you ready to ↗start?

Could you give me a↗ pen, please?

  • Alternative questionsg.

Do you want ↗coffee or ↘tea?

Does he speak↗ Kiswahili or ↘English?

  • Before tag questionsg.

This is a beautiful ↘place, ↗isn’t it?

She knows↘ him,↗ doesn’t she?

  • Enumeratingg.

↗One, ↗two,↗ three, ↗four,↘ five.

She bought ↗bread, ↗cheese, ↗oranges, and ↘apples.



Using an arrow, determine whether rising or falling intonation is used in the sentences.

  • This music sounds good.
  • I love watching horror movies.
  • My sister’s name is Amina.
  • Blue is my favourite colour.
  • Is that tv good?
  • Do you like that movie?
  • Are you hungry?
  • Get me my shoes.
  • Study your lessons now.
  • Are you insane?
  • How many more hours before you are done with your work?
  • Which novel is the best for you?
  • He is a little bit nervous, isn’t he?
  • You should listen to your parents’ advice.
  • Did you finish your homework?
  • Water is good for the body.
  • This is good!
  • What a crazy show.



  • A pun is a form of word play that suggests several meanings, by either exploiting the multiple meanings of a word, or substituting a word for another similar sounding word, the result of which is humorous.
  • A pun is also known as paronomasia.
  • There are two main types of puns:
  • Homophonic puns

This is where a word is substituted for another similar sounding word or word pronounced almost in the same way . For example,

Fishermen are reel men.

Explanation: There is a twist on the word ‘reel’ which is originally supposed to be spelt ‘real’.

Can you now explain the pun in the following homophonic puns?

  1. What do sea monsters eat for lunch? Fish and ships.
  2. I am on a seafood diet. Every time I see food, I eat it.
  3. Did you about the Italian chef with terminal illness? He past away.
  4. Beauty is in the eye of the beer holder.
  5. What tea do hockey players drink? Penalttea
  6. What do ghosts serve for dessert? I scream.
  7. What did the tree sya to the autumn? Leaf me alone.
  8. What did the boy cat say to the girl cat on valentine’s day? You’re purr-fect for me.
  9. What day does an Easter egg hate the most? Fry-days.
  10. Why did the scientist install a knocker on his door? He wanted to win the No-bell prize!
  • Homographic puns

Homographic pun is formed by using a word that has multiple meanings. You might not tell what exactly what the speaker means.

For example;

Rose is the flower of my life.

Explanation: The word ‘Rose’ is a female name. it could be the person the speaker loves.

It  is also a type of flower.

The other examples are;

  1. My math teacher called me average. How mean!
  2. What do prisoners use to call each other? Cell phones.
  3. No matter how much you push the envelope, it’ll remain stationery.
  4. Have you ever tried to eat a clock? It’s very time consuming.
  5. A waist is a terrible thing to mind.
  6. I am reading a book about anti-gravity. It’s impossible to put down.
  7. What part of football ground is never the same? The changing room.
  8. I want to tell you a chemistry joke but I know I will not get a reaction.
  9. Why did the bee get married? Because he found his honey.
  10. Did you hear about the guy who got hit in the head with a can of soda? He was lucky it was a soft drink.


Features of Puns

Puns are characterized by;

  1. They are short.
  2. They are humorous.

Functions of Puns

They serve functions such as:

  • Teaching pronunciation. For example, homophones.
  • Enhancing creativity. One has to think in order to form their puns.
  • When said one wonders what the speaker intends, the audience will laugh.


Explain the pun in:

  • I used to be a banker but I lost interest.
  • A bicycle can’t stand on its own because it is two-tired.
  • I don’t trust these stairs because they are always up to something.
  • Santa’s helpers are known as subordinate clauses.
  • The man who drank battery acid got charged.



  • A phrase or a sentence which is hard to speak fast because of alliteration or a sequence of nearly similar sounds is the tongue twister.
  • It is worth noting that there is usually the use of mnemonic feature (sound devices or sound patterns) in the tongue twisters.
  • Let us read the following tongue twisters fast.
  • She sells sea shells on the sea shore.
  • Any noise annoys an oyster but noisy noise annoys an oyster more.
  • Kindly kittens knitting mittens keep kazooing in the king’s kitchen.

Sound Patterns in Tongue Twisters

  1. Read the tongue twister below fast.

She saw a fish on the seashore and I am sure the fish she saw on the sea shore was a saw-fish.

In the words: she, shore and sure, there is the repetition of the consonant sound /ᶴ/ at the beginning of the words. This is alliteration.

Alliteration is the repetition of the initial consonant sound in the nearby words.

Can you identify any other instance of alliteration in the above tongue twister?

  1. Read this other tongue twister and take note of the highlighted letters.

A skunk sat on a stump and thank the stump stunk, but the stump thank the skunk stunk.

The sound pattern here is consonance.

Consonance is the repetition of the inner consonant sound in the nearby words. An inner sound is that which comes after the first.

There is another instance of consonance. Can you illustrate it?

  1. Repetition
  • In most tongue twisters, there is repetition of words or phrases. In (1) above, the words ‘saw’, ‘fish’, etc. have been repeated.
  • Now pick out the words and phrases repeated in these tongue twisters.
  • If you tell Tom to tell a tongue twister, his tongue will be twisted as tongue twister twists tongues.
  • The sixth sick Sheik’s sixth sheep’s sick.
  1. Assonance

Let’s look at:

How much wood could a wood chopper chop, if a wood chopper could chop wood?

There is repetition of the /u:/ in the words; wood,could. This is assonance.

Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds in the nearby words.

Features of Tongue Twisters

A tongue twister will have the following features:

  • it is short and brief.
  • It is alliterative.

Functions of Tongue Twisters

  1. They entertain. When one confuses the pronunciation of sounds, the audience will laugh.
  2. They teach pronunciation. We can, for example, learn the pronunciation of the sounds /f/ and /v/, /s/ and /ᶴ/ etc.
  3. Enhance creativity.


Exercise 1

With illustrations, identify the sound patterns in:

  • It’s not the cough that carries you off, it’s the coffin they carry you off in!
  • If two witches were watching two watches, which witch would watch which watch?
  • If a black bug bleeds black blood, what colour of blood does a blue bug bleed?
  • I wish to wash my Irish watch.

Exercise 2

Read the item below and then answer questions after it:

We surely shall see the sun shine soon.

  • Identify the genre.
  • Which two sounds has the item been used to teach?



  • Rhyming words are the words that sound the same at the ends. Examples of rhyming words are:
  • When a poem has rhyming words at the end of its lines, these are called ‘end rhymes’. Look at these two lines:

That keep me locked up tight

All of the things that make me feel not right

The words ‘tight’ and ‘right’ rhyme.

  • By contrast, internal rhyme/ middle rhyme, is a rhyme that occurs either when:
  • Two or more rhyming words occur within the same line;
  • Two or more rhyming words appear in the middle of two separate lines, or sometimes more;
  • A word at the end of a line rhymes with one or more in the middle of the following line.
  • Read the poem below and then try to identify the instances of rhyme in it.

Mystic Travel

Mystic travel time

Too endless islands in your mind


Tiny lights majestic and free

Open the skies soar me


Travel your minds unseen road

To mysterious lands secrets untold


The mountains valley lay quiet

As a shower carries away


The warmth of an evening breeze

Built from within a day


Heat dances shadows on the lakes fiery bay

Constructing temples where gods could play


Today is the finest piece

For tranquil emptiness


Suggestions of fluent sensations

Congregated illusions of masturbations


Sympathize the richness of the truth

Energize the expected thoughts of youth


Reading the poem aloud, we can point out several rhyming couplets. They include among others:

  • Free and me
  • Away and day
  • Sensations and masturbations
  • Truth and youth

Internal Rhyme in Separate Lines

Here is are two examples of pairs of lines with middle rhymes in separate lines.

I see a red boat that has a red flag

Just like my red coat and my little red pail


The words ‘boat’ and ‘coat’ rhyme.


I’d like to jump into the ocean

But don’t dump me instead.


The rhyming words are ‘jump’ and ‘dump’.


Now read the stanza below from the poem ‘The Raven’ and identify all the pairs of rhyming words.


Once upon a midnight dreary, while i

Pondered, weak and weary

Over many a quaint and curious volume of

Forgotten  lore.

While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly

There came a tapping

As if someone gently rapping, rapping at

My chamber door

’’Tis some visitor,’’ I muttered, ’’tapping at

My chamber door;

Only this, and nothing more.’’

Rhyme Scheme

  • This is a way of describing the pattern of the end rhymes in a poem.
  • The points below will help you in reading and notating the rhyme scheme.
  • Each new sound at the end of a line is given a letter.
  • The letters start with ‘a’ , then ‘b’, and so on.
  • If an end sound repeats the end sound of an earlier line, it gets the same letter as that earlier line.
  • Here are four different stanzas, each with a different rhyme scheme, that can help you understand rhyme scheme


  1. From Voices in My Head, by Ivor Davies

Suddenly a voice appears

I hear it in my mind

Within my head not in my ears

Not of the normal kind


The rhyme scheme is: abab

It is regular rhyme scheme as it is easy to predict when the sound will next appear.

  1. From Falling Raindrops’ Prayer for the Broken.

I pray for the crying

For the hurt and the dying

For those burned and screaming

For each helper crying


The rhyme scheme is aaaaa

This too is regular.

  1. From the poem by Robert Broadbent.

Early or late,

Patient …can’t wait

Lost or your found

The world goes around

The rhyme scheme here is aabb. This is a Regular scheme

  1. From Happy Holidays by John Lumber.

Christmas Eve

Oh how supreme!

When Santa comes

Every night!

Then, next day,

I just can’t wait,

When the tree is all alight.


The rhyme scheme is abcdedd. This is irregular.

The irregular rhyme scheme occurs when you can’t predict when the end sound will be repeated.


Why Rhyme?

  • Rhyme creates rhythm in the poem.
  • It also makes reading or reciting the poem interesting.
  • The poem is also made easy to memorize. 

Exercise 1

Describe the rhyme scheme of the poem below by Robert Broadbent.

One Day at a Time

Happy or sad

Good days or bad

Cherry or down

The world goes around


Give up or try

Out going or shy

A smile or a frown,

The world goes around


Early or late,

Patient …can’t wait,

Lost or your found,

The world goes around


Angry, serene

Out spoken, unsent

Tense or unwound,

The world goes around


All future days,

Are hidden in haze,

Don’t worry, just learn,

To let the world turn.


Exercise 2

The incomplete poem below has the rhyme scheme: aabccbddebfe. Complete it with appropriate words.

Death did not take Paris silently

Rumbled the grave screaming _______________________

No child slept easy that _______________________

Twenty minutes of terror waking

Wee ones from sleep in cold sweats __________________________

Stealing their peaceful birthright.

Indelible imprints of ______________________

Ingrained in young psyches forever;

Post traumatic stress syndrome.

They may age, but they will not ____________________

The bloody death that evil begets

Shadows lurk in dreaming’s gloam.

(By Catie Lindsey)



  • they are sung by a nanny, sibling, aunty, order to:
  1. Send the baby to sleep.
  2. Calm the crying baby.
  3. Give promise to the crying baby. The promise can be that one of the parents is coming back.
  • They are normally sung softly so as to lull the baby.
  • If you have to clap, or hum, or whistle to the rhythm, do it softly and slowly.
  • In the case where a child cries, rock the baby as you sing.
  • You can also gently tap the back of the baby.
  • They are normally short.
  • They are also repetitive.
  • Read the song below and then attempt the questions that follow.

Sleep baby sleep

Sleep baby sleep

Your father tends the sheep

Your mother shakes the dreamland tree.

  1. Identify two features of lullabies in the above song.
  2. Give the main reason for singing the above song.
  • How would you do the following as you sing the song:
  1. Clap to the rhythm of the song.
  2. Rock the baby as you sing.


  • They are sung by children during their playtime.
  • Also referred to as play songs.

Features of Children Songs

  1. Repetition is used. A word, sentence, and even a whole stanza can be repeated.
  2. They are often short.

Functions of Children’s  Songs

  1. They help in developing children’s language skills as they listen to familiar words in the songs.
  2. Help develop children’s listen skills, thus concentrate.
  3. Encourage creativity in children. At times you find children adding words that were not initially mentioned in the original versions of the songs.
  4. Some teaching counting of numbers.

Now read the song below. You can practice singing it.

In and out the bamboo forest

In and out the bamboo forest

In and out the bamboo forest

You are my partner.

Beat a beat on my shoulder

Beat a beat on my shoulder

Beat a beat on my shoulder

You are my partner.


Teasing Songs

  • Sung to make fun of someone.

Religious Songs

  • Sung and performed during religious occasions.
  • Sung mostly at places considered holy grounds.
  • Sung softly and slowly.

Love Poetry/Songs

  • They are based on romance.
  • Sung by one to the loved one.
  • They are sung softly and slowly as they should present romantic elements.
  • They are sung to:
  1. Express romance.
  2. Mend the damaged relationship between lovers.


Cradle Songs/Poetry

  • Performed to mark the birth of a child.
  • In most cases, a child is wished a successful life in future.
  • Mostly performed by women and girls.
  • During this time, a child or child’s mother is presented with gifts.

War Poetry

  • Performed by warriors during war.
  • Sung loudly to show bravery.
  • During the singing, weapons are held in the hands of the performers.

Hunting Songs

  • Hunters perform hunting songs.
  • Sung on the way to and from hunting trip.
  • Hunting tools carried in the process.
  • Just like war songs, they are sung loudly.
  • They are on the way to hunt to encourage themselves on the possibility of killing fatter and enough animals.
  • Also to pass time on their way.

Satirical Songs

  • One’s folly is criticized in this song.
  • They are meant to help the wicked in some areas to change.

Epics/Heroic Poetry

  • They are elaborate and talk about the lives of heroes known to the community.
  • The heroic deeds of the heroes are mentioned.


  • Also referred to as funeral songs or funeral poems.
  • They are sung after learning about the death of someone.
  • Can also be sung during the funeral ceremony.
  • Should also be sung softly to show the sadness that result from losing someone’s beloved one.
  • In some cases, weapons are held during the performance.
  • There is the use of apostrophe. This is style of addressing an object or a death as if it is alive and can respond.
  • While women sing, men chant.



  • In its specialized form panegyric is a type of song and one meant to praise someone.
  • The praise song can be sung by someone else or sung by one for self praises. Sometimes these are self-praises
  • Formalized praises are directed publicly to kings, chiefs, and leaders, composed and recited by members of a king’s official entourage.
  • One can be praised in case of:
  1. personal achievement in war ; or
  2. Achievement in hunting.
  • Look at the panegyric in the next page.

Ogun kills on the right and destroys on the right.
Ogun kills on the left and destroys on the left.
Ogun kills suddenly in the house and suddenly in the field.
Ogun kills the child with the iron with which it plays.

Ogun kills in silence.
Ogun kills the thief and the owner of the stolen goods.
Ogun-kills the owner of the slave—and the slave runs away.
Ogun kills the owner of thirty ’iwofa’ [pawns]—and his money, wealth and children disappear.
Ogun kills the owner of the house and paints the hearth with his blood.
Ogun is the death who pursues a child until it runs into the bush.
Ogun is the needle that pricks at both ends.
Ogun has water but he washes in blood.




Telephone etiquette are the rules that demonstrate the proper and polite way to use your phone/telephone.

It starts from how you prepare for phone calls to when you end the call.

Preparation for Phone Call

The following should be done before placing a call:

  • Ensure you have enough time. It will not auger well to suddenly end the conversation because of insufficient airtime.
  • Go to a place where there is silence. Too much noise will distract your attention.
  • Think through exactly what you want to say. Write it down if possible so you don’t forget what to say or ask and look as though you didn’t have anything to say.

Tips to Display When Making a Call

Whether at work, at home, or on your mobile phone, remember to display the tips below at all times:

  1. Identify yourself at the beginning of the call.
  2. Speak clearly and slowly especially when leaving the message.
  3. Speak with a low tone of voice. Be sure to know how loud you may be.
  4. Always end with a pleasantry, for example,’ Have a nice day.’
  5. Let the caller hang up first.
  6. Stay away from others while talking on the phone. They don’t need to hear your private conversation.

What to Avoid

  1. Avoid being distracted by other activities while speaking. Some of these activities include:
  • Rustling papers
  • Chewing
  • Driving
  • Speaking with someone
  • Shopping
  • Working on the computer
  1. Avoid allowing interruptions to occur during the conversation.
  2. Do not engage in an argument with the caller.
  3. Talking too loudly.


Not at these Places

The following are places you should not make a call. You should even have your cell phone in a silent mode or switch it off altogether.

  • Bathrooms
  • Hospitals
  • Waiting rooms
  • Meetings
  • Museums
  • Places of worship
  • Lectures
  • Live performances
  • Funerals
  • Weddings

Telephone Conversations

Here we shall focus on majorly business telephone conversations. It should be noted that there are patterns that are followed; but not all will follow this rigid pattern. The six patterns include:

  1. The phone is answered by someone who asks if he/she can help.
  2. The caller makes a request either to be connected to someone or for information.
  3. The caller is connected, given information or told that that person is not present at the moment.
  4. The caller is asked to leave a message if the person who is requested for is not in.
  5. The caller leaves a message or asks other questions.
  6. The phone call finishes.

Exercise 1

Read the telephone conversation below and then answer questions that follow.

Pauline: (a form two student, Wajanja School) ring ring… ring ring …

Secretary: Hello, Wajanja School, this is Ms Esther speaking. How may I be of help to you?

Pauline: Yes, this is Pauline Karanja a form two student calling. May I speak to the principal, please?

Secretary: I am afraid MsKaluma is not in the office at the moment. Would you like to leave a message?

Pauline: I would really want, thanks. When she comes back, tell her I wanted to ask for one day permission. My brother is sick and I would like to request her that I report one day after the opening day. It is I who will be left with my siblings as the brother goes to the hospital. That is all.

Secretary: Sorry for that, I wish him quick recovery. I would give her the message as soon.

Pauline:I would be grateful madam. Thanks again.

Pauline:Welcome Pauline. Just ensure you report as stated here.

Secretary: Ok have a nice day madam.

Pauline:You too have a perfect day. Goodbye

  • With examples, outline the patterns of telephone conversation in above.
  • Identify evidences of telephone etiquette tips displayed by Pauline in the conversation above.


Exercise 2

Your sibling is very sick. You are planning to make a doctor a phone call to come to your home to provide medication.

  • State any three preparations you would put in place before making this important call.
  • Give four bad habits you would avoid when making this call.

Exercise 3

Joan has just called the parent to ask them to pay the school fee. Unfortunately, the parent is not happy with the way she has made the call. Identify any four telephone etiquette tips shecould have failed to display.




Have you ever attended the formal meetings where you are asked questions and are expected to respond to them? More than once you will be invited to attend interviews. You can also invite someone to interview. For this reason, you should some interview tips.

The two participants in an interview are the interviewer (at times a panel of interviewers), and the interviewee.

Tips for the Interviewees

Job Interview Preparations

If you really want to be considered for a particular job following an interview, you have to adequately prepare to succeed. The following are the preparations the interviewee would put in place before the interview:

  • Contact your referees to alert them that you will be interviewed and they are likely to receive a call.
  • Prepare your documents. Make sure they are neat and well arranged.
  • Know the location where you are having the interview. It will help you know how long it will take you to reach there.
  • Do some research about the organization.
  • Prepare what to wear and how to groom.
  • Anticipate potential questions and prepare answers correctly.
  • Arrive early enough for the interview.
  • Prepare questions to ask the interviewer at the end. It will show how much you are interested in working there.

During the Interview;

  • Greet the interviewer.
  • Knock on the door and wait for response before you enter. Shut the door behind you quietly.
  • Wait until you are offered the seat before sitting.
  • Sit or stand upright and look alert throughout.
  • Make good eye contact with the interviewer to show you are honest.
  • Explain your answers whenever possible and avoid answering questions with yes/no as answers.
  • Answer questions honestly. Don’t ever lie!

Common Blunders you MUST Avoid

Avoid falling foul of the following:

  1. Turning up late for the interview.
  2. Dressing and grooming inappropriately.
  3. Giving simple yes/no as answers.
  4. Speaking negatively about your previous employer.
  5. Sitting before invited.
  6. Discussing time-off or money.


As an Interviewer

Before the Interview:

  1. Write down questions to ask.
  2. Call the prospective employee’s referees.
  3. Prepare the place for the interview.
  4. Alert the interviewee about the interview. Mention the time and place.
  5. Arrive early for the interview.

During the Interview:

  1. Allow them enough time to respond to questions.
  2. Encourage them to speak by, for example, nodding your head when they answer questions.
  3. Speak and ask questions politely. Be friendly but formal as much as you can.
  4. Make eye contact with the interviewee to show you are listening to them.

Exercise 1

you are the secretary of journalism Club at Maembe Dodo Mixed School. On Friday you would like to interview your school Deputy Principal on the issue of Students’ Discipline.

  • Write down any three questions you would ask him/her.
  • Other than writing down questions to ask, how else would you prepare prepare for this day?
  • State four things you would do as you interview him.

Exercise 2

Read the conversation below and then answer questions after it.

Ms Naomi: Welcome to our Doctor’s office.

Mr. Josh: Nice to be here.

Ms Naomi: I see from your resume that you are a cardiologist with 10 years of practice.

Mr. Josh: That’s right.

Ms Naomi: This interview is just to get to know you a little and then there are follow up interviews. So what do you do in your free time?

Mr. Josh: I like golfing and swimming. I also like to read newspapers.

Ms Naomi:Why did you want to be a doctor?

Mr. Josh:Actually I love helping people get well. I think cardiology has made great strides recently and I would like to share my findings with others.

Ms Naomi:Have you written in any scientific journals so far?

Mr. Josh:Not yet. But hopefully soon.

Ms Naomi:OK, we’d like to learn more about you. Let’s go for lunch wwith our colleagues, if that’s OK.

Mr. Josh:That’s fine, I am free.


  • What two things qualify Ms Naomi as a good interviewer?
  • Identify two evidences of interview tips displayed by Mr. Josh.



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