• it ensures trouble free full term pregnancy,
  • safe childbirth
  • good health to mother/baby

Ways of achieving safe parenthood

  • mother should meet the nutritional needs,
  • social preparation of mother
  • psychological preparation of mother,
  • voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV, – correct age of parents.

Nutritional needs

  • it is for
  •  health of mother
    1. growth
    2. development of foetus

N/B:- foetus takes all nutrients required from mother even in mother has too little.

  • if calcium for mother is too little and its drawn by foetus then she will have                    weak bones.

Social preparation

  • it gives peace of mind for mother so that she is mentally prepared to stand the expected discomforts and prevent miscarriage that is normally as a result o excessive hormone production

Psychological preparation of expectant mother

  • it is for positive mental attitude towards pregnancy,

N/B:- excessive worrying increases production of hormones that may lead to;

  •  miscarriage
  • depression to mother

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Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) in HIV

If done they will be able to take care of themselves.

Counselling of mother can be done;

  • mother can be given great care during birth not to infect the baby,
  • mother is able to get an anti-retroviral drug, it prevents transmission of the virus to the baby on delivery within 72 hours.

Age of parent

  • too young mother risks her life and baby’s,
  • too old risk getting abnormal children especially if getting them for the first time –           N/B:- recommended age is 18-35 years.


Signs of pregnancy:

  1.  stopping menstruation
  2. nausea/morning sickness 3-4 months
  3. desire to pus urine frequently,
  4.  graving for certain foods and ditching others
  5. enlarged breasts
  6. tender nipples
  7. enlarged abdomen
  8. dark-line on abdomen from navel downwards,
  9. moving of foetus at approximately 5 months
  10.  skin complexion changes smoother, lighter/opposite
  11. heartburn
  12.  frequent constipation
  13. backache
  14. mild uterine contractions.

Common problems during pregnancy i.e danger signs/disorders

  • tiredness feeling and breathlessness caused by anaemia/lack of enough iron, N/B:- Baby may be big/may be twins
  • fake mild labour 8th – 9th month, because of pressure of baby,
  • vaginal bleeding (threat of miscarriage)
  • oedema on feet not dangerous
  • the one on hands and face is dangerous because it means there is poor blood circulation or coxaemia (poisoning as a result of bacteria toxins in blood)
  • severe persistence of abdominal pain (a sign of threat of miscarriage)
  • swelling of varicose veins (twisted and painful veins on legs) due to standing for long at early months there will be; (i) blood circulation interference (ii) excessive blood loss in case of bursting
  • high blood pressure mother’s life and foetus will be in danger because it can lead to a miscarriage,
  • severe vomiting (excessive) beyond 4 months , mother can’t be healthy same to baby, it denies them nourishment
  • dizziness/blackout:- it can be due to lack of iron in blood (toxaemia)
  • amniotic fluid appearing; cam lead to a miscarriage/childbirth
  • piles/haemorrhoids; i.e varicose veins in anus, could be because of constipation are painful though disappear after pregnancy,
  • leg cramps; consult a doctor,

mother should eat foods rich in calcium

  • heartburn not so serious though cause discomfort

N/B:- mother should know foods that cause it and avoid and should eat light meals frequently.

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Needs of expectant mothers

 Nutritional needs

  1. the mother needs diet having all nutrients for the two of them, she has special nutritional demands i.e need extra of some nutrients.
    1. if a good diet is not provided and mother has frequent births the babies will be small in size
    2. mother will experience exhaustion
    3. mother will be sickly and anaemia
    4. N/B:- mother needs extra food requirements for
      1. growth of foetus, ii) because of various changes in the body Amount of nutrients required depends on   i) individuals
      2. stage of pregnancy
  1. Mother needs extra intake of;
  • protein
  • roughage
  • calcium

Extra nutrients needed a) extra iron Because

  •  during the last month of pregnancy, foetus stores enough iron to last for6 months
  •  for proper formation of haemoglobin
  •  to prevent anaemia
  • to cater for mother and foetus


  • beans
  • dark green vegetables
  • eggs
  • lean meat (pork and liver)

b) calcium

  1. for proper bone formation of foetus bones and teeth
  2. to cater for mother and foetus or else foetus will draw it from mothers teeth and bones.


  • milk
  • cheese
  • eggs
  • unrefined cereals
  • legumes
  • durable bones

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proteins needed for growth of foetus for maintenance of mother requirements. e.g       – meat

  • fish
  • poultry
  • termites
  • pulses, (beans, peas, greengrams/nuts)
  1. calories
  • for proper development of foetus,
  • for her to be able to increase weight of about 10-12kg during whole period of pregnancy, N/B:-
  • should avoid too much fat because
  •  it slows down digestion
  •  causes constipation, nausea and heartburn

 Protective foods 

  • should be provided everyday and enough
  • should be bright yellow ones i.e fruits and vegetables,
  • should be at regular intervals for regular bowel movements; why?
  • to avoid constipation that can lead to piles (haemorrhoids)


  • there will be craving but mother can provide other foods – should take plenty of water for digestion if not having oedema, – should not take alcohol because it slows low foetal growth.

Physical needs

  • getting enough sleep at night and at least 1 hour at daytime,
  • work normally though should not life heavy loads/suffer fatigue,
  • exercises e.g walking,
  • putting on free dresses and well fitting, low healed shoes because they are comfortable,
  • bathing daily, brushing teeth cleaning hair, wearing clean clothes – resting feet on a low stool (foot rest) to prevent swelling

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Emotional needs 

  • needs a peaceful environment i.e no quarrels and anxiety; why:- shouting too much and quarreling worries and disturbs foetus
  • needs confidence and positive mental attitude i.e should accept her condition and be ready for birth of baby,
  • should be proud of her condition to cope with physical changes on her body,

N/B:- should not tie waist to hide the pregnancy because it interferes with blood circulation.

  • needs a happy atmosphere so needs entertainment e.g preparing to celebrate birth of baby despite the sex/disability factors,
  • should be mentally healthy e.g illnesses like HIV/AIDS can cause too much worrying that can lead to a miscarriage.

Social needs (role of the family)

Needs support from all members if even if they don’t accept the pregnancy.


  • mother should never be exposed to pressure/frustration at home and at work it cause emotional reasons,
  • should make sure that while in hospital someone will take care of the other children and home,
  • not getting bad remarks about the condition
  • should be assigned to do light duties and not heavy,
  • informing the young children about baby’s arrival and told to accept the situation,


It is care given to an expectant mother from conception time to delivery.

  • It is important because it ensures safety of mother and foetus.

 Sodium bicarbonate and acid phosphate

The 2 are added to flour during manufacture to make it sef raising.  When heated because will be produced to raise the mixture so no need of using a raising agent.

Biological method of producing because;

  • it is produced by yeast biological a minute living plant of fungus type,
  • under favourable conditions its cells grow and multiply. In the process it gives out because and alcohol through fermentation process.
  • because will raise the mixture alcohol will escape

Conditions suitable to for growth of yeast

  1. Food

i.e sugar in flour

N/B: should not be too much since it makes yeast sells rapture retard fermentation process.

  1. Warmth

All ingredients should be warmed to 250C and held their throughout mixing and proving process.

N/B:- should never be hot because hot temperatures kill yeast

N/B:- to yet right temp 1/3 of liquid in recipe should be boiled and mixed to remaining liquid that is cold.

Should be cold temperature because it retards its growth

N/B:- Drought should be avoided they have a cooling effect on mixture

  • Liquid

e.g water/milk its form the solution in which fermentation process takes place.

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Rules for making flour mixtures

  1.  good quality ingredients to be used,
  2. ingredients to be weighted correctly,
  3. correct equipment and utensils should be used during preparation and cooking       method given in recipe in the following accurately
  4. cooking temperature and duration of cooking should be observed,
  5. testily for readiness the baked items before taking out of oven,




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