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SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND:A.SULPHUR (S) Sulphur is an element in Group VI(Group 16)of the Periodic table . It has atomic number 16...







  •  Taking care of oneself in order to look presentable and acceptable.
  • Care of the body, clothes and developing good habits.

NB: A well groomed person is

  • appealing
  • has good personality
  • has confidence

Good grooming is a sign of good health that is brought about by;

  • eating a well balanced diet
  • getting enough exercise and rest
  • clean bodily habits and posture (iv) clean and appropriate clothing.

Care of the body: The skin: Functions

  • protection of body from germs and harmful agents e.g Ultra violet rays from the sun.
  • a sensory organ for body through nerve endings which responds to stimuli e.g touch, cold, heat and pain.
  • Regulation of body temperature
  • Keeps it cool when hot and warm when cold
  •  Excretory organ
  • Gets rid of waste matter through pores in the form of sweat.

The structure of the skin

Parts of the skin

  • epidermis
  • dermis

The epidermis

Protective outer layer

Diagram: refer to page 5

The dermis

Has the following parts;

(a) Blood capillaries

  • supply skin with food and oxygen
  • bring water and waster products to sweat glands for removal.
  • Sweat glands

Consists of secretory cells that absorb fluids from surrounding cells and capillaries then pass urine to duct to be removed as sweat.

  • Hair follicles
    1. Are dip pits of granular and malphigian layers.
    2. Have nerve endings which respond to movement of the hair.
  • Sebaceous glands

They produce an oily substance sebum that:

  •  keeps skin oily preventing it from crouching, drying and being scaly.
  • Makes skin water proof
  • Kills micro-organisms.

Care of the skin

Why it is necessary to take good care of the skin.

  • After evaporation of sweat, salt, oils, dead cells and dust from dirt on skin, if not removed they clog block pores of skin preventing it from breathing.
  • The dirt can become greasy and smelly causing skin irritation.
  • It can produce unpleasant oduors and
  • Can be a breeding place of bacteria

Points on care of the skin

  • Bathing regularly using warm water and good quality soap.
  • Pay attention to skin folds e.g armpit, neck groin, between toes etc.
  • Rinsing skin with cold water to refreshen.
  • Using towel to dry skin attention to skin folds.
  • Applying deodorant to enhance freshness.
  • Not sharing personal items / if shared must be sterilized.
  • Underclothes never to be shared.
  • Doing enough exercise, airing clothes and exposing it to the sun.
  • Having a balanced diet rich in Vitamins and minerals.
  • Drinking plenty of clean water
  • Avoiding sharing blades and shavers.


Types of skins:

  • Dry
  • Oily
  • Normal skin

Common skin problems

  • Dry skin

Use correct skin lotions, creams and oils

  • Oily skin

Eat less fat and oil.

Washing face frequently with warm water and good soap.

Drying well with a soft towel.

Blackheads & whiteheads

  • washing face with medicated soap,
  • application of an antiseptic cream,
  • avoiding make-ups,
  • eating a balanced diet and less fatty foods.


  • Pay special attention to hygiene and diet.
  • Use medicated soap and avoid squeezing pimples.

 Cleaning the body:-

The face

  • Use toilet soap warm water and face towel to remove dirt and open pores, – Rinse with cold water to close pores.
  • Dry with a soft towel.
  • Apply cosmetics before sleeping to refreshen the skin.


  • Pay attention to eyes, ears and nose.
  • Clean external parts of ear.
  • Use soft cotton lids to remove excessive max – Avoid inserting sharp objects in the ear.
  • Use clean soft handkerchief to remove mucus from nose.
  • Wash eyes paying attention to corners.
  • For good eyesight and healthy mucus membrane eat a diet rich in Vitamin A.

The hand

Points on care of hands

  • wash with soap and water before eating and after visiting toilet and dirty work.
  • use gloves (rubber ones) to clean toilets and contaminated areas.
  • keep nails short and clean.
  • smoothen with a nail file don’t bite them.
  • apply suitable creams.

The feet and toes:

Points on care of feet and toes.

  • clean using soap, water and disinfect.
  • remove dead skin from heels using a pumice skin.
  • to avoid bad smell, foot not and athletes for dry between toes properly.
  • use correct size of shoes to prevent corns and bunions for comfort.
  • frequent airing of feet to prevent bad smell.
  • putting on clean shoes and socks.
  • putting on shoes to avoid injury diseases etc.
  • not wearing high heeled shoes when pregnant and when in the kitchen (ix) not sharing shoes and socks.
  • toe nails to be kept short
  • using Talcom powder / deodorant with foot powder.



  • keeping hair clean all times.
  • washing frequently using shampoo or soap to prevent dandruffs and parasites.
  • styling according to occasion and face (shape) –
  • men to keep hair short to look clean and tidy.
  • Ladies hair can be natural, plaited/braided/could be permed.
  • avoiding excessive heat when blow drying or hot combing hair. – not plaiting hair tightly.

Cleaning hair

  • wetting hair with warm water,
  • applying shampoo, rubbing scalp gently to remove grease, massaging to stimulate blood flow.
  • using warm water to rinse.
  • if still dirty, shampoo twice and rinse drying with towel.
  • permed hair to be put on rollers while wet and dried under a drier, – oil and comb then style.
  • if plaited plaits should remain neat for 1 to 3 weeks.
  • it should be undone before washing,
  • shampooing it should be done at least once a week of it by hair piece.

Problems of the scalp a) Dandruffs

It is caused by bits of dead skins collecting in the hair.  Makes hair dry and neglected.  Scalp gets itchy and uncomfortable, passed from one person to another by sharing combs and brushes.


  • Avoid sharing combs and brushes,
  • Brushes and combs should be kept clean,
  • Hair should be washed frequently,
  • Drying and oiling the scalp thoroughly,
  • Using medicated shampoo to remove fungi and protect more damage of the skin.
  1. b) Parasites

e.g lice 

-Passed from one person to another through sharing of combs, hair brushes, towels, wigs etc. – cause irritation, rashes and discomfort.


  • dust hair with crushed mothballs, wash off shampoo and style.
  • hot combing
  • cutting off
  • consulting a dermatologists

Cleaning combs and hair brushes

  • remove hair with a nail brush, soak in detergent water and brush well while in water/ tap bristles in water and comb to remove dirt of brush.
  • wash in warm soapy water having household ammonia that aids in removing oily dirt,
  • dip in warm soap water beat bristles until clean,
  • rinse in warm water thoroughly finally in cold shake off and dry on the side for water to drip. If wooden  handle should be upper most, dry appropriately,
  • store properly



For checking make-up, hair styles and dressing up.


  • Dust with a clean non fluffy cloth,
  • Clean frame depending on type,
  • Clean mirror with a soft cloth wrung from soapy warm water. (iv) Rinse it with a cloth wrung from warm water, (v) Buff with newspaper/glass cloth to shine.

The teeth

Why keep teeth clean;

  • to give one confident,
  • to keep teeth healthy,
  • to prevent interfering with eating
  • to prevent public embarrassment,
  • decayed teeth cause pain and bad health.


hardest layer of the tooth, – prevents wear during eating.


  • visible to eye
  • softer than enamel

Pulp cavity

  • sensitive part
  • has soft tissues, nerve endings and blood vessels and blood vessels they link tooth to rest of the body.
  1. Cement
  • covers the dentine and root portion, if tooth of damage tooth is sensitive to cold fold cold drink/hot ones

Dental hygiene:

  • brushing twice a day
  • removing all food particles by brushing up and down
  • avoiding too many sweets and sugary foods.
  • eating vegetables, fresh fruits, sugarcane, maize etc to exercise jaws,
  • avoid using sharp, objects , pointed tooth picks to prevent damaging gum,
  • dental check – ups twice a year,
  • avoid sharing toothbrushes to prevent spreading infections.

Choice and care of toothbrushes

  • should have firmly fixed bristles,
  • should be rinsed properly,
  • should be stored with bristles up in a holder/tumble,
  • clean between bristles with a toothpick to dislodge/remove dirt and disinfect with salty solution. replacement should be done of worn out toothbrushes
  • an improvised stick may be used if one has no modern one, if one has no toothpaste, use a mixture of bicarbonate of soda and salt.


Care of personal items:



  • should be of absorbent material
  • reasonable size
  • should be clean
  • presentable


  • soak in salty water for 5minutes
  • rinse and wash in warm soapy water using friction
  • rinse in warm water finally, cold water

Care of teeth

Care of teeth is called dental hygiene.

Teeth need to be taken care of because there are many bacteria that live in the human mouth.  They cause tooth decay.  They also combine in saliva and foods forming plague a sticky substance on teeth.  When it builds up it can cause cum disease.

It can be removed by brushing if not remove it handers forming tartar that can only be removed by a doctor.  Bacteria in mouth feed on food residues especially sugar producing an acid that attack enamel and dentine.

When pulp cavity is infected, it will cause pain (toothache). If infection spreads deep into teeth, it becomes rotten and has to be extracted.

Ways of enhancing personal appearance Cosmetics:

  • Are substances that enhance personal appearance.
  • Are chemical preparations natural/artificial designed to make skin, hair, nails, eyes etc attractive and appealing.
  • Are also used to hide skin chemicals that spoil beauty and perfection of the skin.


  •   creams
  • oils
  • lotions
  • conditioners
  • deodorants
  • nail polish
  • lipsticks
  • bleaching creams
  • powders.


How to choose and use cosmetics

  • should be ones that suit your skin type,
  • to improve the natural looks,
  • one should get advice from expert before use,
  • avoid one with mercury which is harmful,
  • read and understand instructions before use
  • brand chosen should be one that is widely used and well tested,
  • avoid using incase of skin irritation
  • avoid applying on broken skin
  • should be ones that are environmentally friendly and empty packets should be disposed safely.
  • use them sparingly,
  • wash the face before sleeping to allow skin to breath, remove nail polish when it starts flashing,
  • checking expiry dates on packaging.


  • Men to choose ones with lime/spicy scents because they are considered masculine.
  • Shaving creams and after shaves should fit their skin type.

Advantages of using cosmetics

  • skin becomes smooth and radiant hence beautiful.
  • protect skin from sunburn and excessive cold,
  • some have vitamin 3 which is an anti-ageing agent because it reduces and decays occurrence of wrinkles and stretch muscles.
  • they enhance freshness and confidence
  • some with medicinal value cure skin ailments.


  • are expensive
  • some have harmful chemicals
  • the clog/block skin pores if not used well, may spoil the skin and cause permanent marks.
  •  they have strong scents that can be offensive.

Misuse of cosmetics misuse lead to:-

  • skin bleaches – they allow Ultra-violet rays from the sun to damage the skin.
  • falling off hair, baldness, burns, blindness from hair chemicals.
  • spoil kidneys incase of high mercury in skin lightness
  •  they make one feel inadequate if absent.



It is end of childhood and beginning of adulthood.


Physical, psychological and emotional changes that leads to mood swings,

  • the young feel misunderstood by their parents and society. Oversensitivity and easily influenced by peer
  • they become vulnerable to problems like sex, that leads to pregnancy, premature fatherhood and STDS.
  • eating disorders.
  • drug abuse
  • running away from authority e.g teachers and monk etc. searching for freedom.

Physical changes during adolescence


  • hair around pubic area, armpits and chest,
  • reproductive organs enlarge (boys) voice breaks and depends.
  • broadening of shoulders,
  • wet dreams,
  • increase in height and weight
  • may develop acne (a skin infection which blackheads and pimples develop on face and neck).


  • growth of pubic hair,
  • enlargement of breasts,
  • distinct waist and increase of hip size, – menstruation periods starts,-increase in weight and height.
  • Both have more sweating so shave hair in the armpits,
  • Pimples on the face are common problem, but clears when one matures.

 Personal hygiene in adolescence

  • bathing ones/twice daily,
  • shaving/trimming pubic hair,
  • putting on clean clothes, underwears and socks,
  • washing face regularly,
  • using quality toilet soap and deodorants and other cosmetics skillfully and sparingly,
  • bathing twice a day/regularly
  • shaving beards and moustaches,
  • use deodorants if possible.


Hygiene during menstruation

  • one should have enough pads, tampons or improvised pads,
  • bathing twice a day ensuring genitals are clean,
  • changing pads frequently depending on flow,
  • change underwears also and soak stained ones in cold water,
  • avoid throwing pads carelessly and don’t flash them, they cause blockage,
  • wrap them in newspaper and polythene papers and burn/throw in a dustbin,
  • use tampons though they cause infection. Improvised cotton materials may be used but should be washed and disinfected after use.

Hygiene for boys

  • bathing frequently,
  • changing clothes, underwears and socks,
  • using a suitable deodorant/cologne for men,
  • cutting hair short and combing neatly.


  • Figure type 

One has to identify the best features and bad/less attractive ones.  The clothes chosen should be ones that enhance the good part on the body and hide the less attractive ones.


They should suit the occasion; e.g if occasion, weddings, funeral etc.

  • Existing fashion 

Should be clothes that are on fashion

  • Fabric design 

Large patterned designs make figure looks large, vertical ones makes it taller and slender while horizontal ones makes it plumber.

  • Fabric texture 

Shiny ones makes a figure larger while heavy ones make it smaller.

  • Weather 
  1. Lightened absorbent ones suit warm places while heavy ones suit cold places,
  2. Dark coloured ones absorb heat should be used in cold places and bright ones reflect heat so give a cooling effect, therefore are for warm places,
  • Size of the garments 

Garment should be one that fit the wearer.  Not too tight or too loose.

  • Care 

If they are for daily wear, should be easy to handle and maintain.  Fabric should be one that is affordable when it comes to maintenance.

  • Cost of clothing 

Should be affordable



Clothes need good care and maintenance and storage:

Why :

  • to last long
  •  to look presentable

Points on care:

  • keep clean and free from creases,
  • each should be laundered according to fabric type,
  • avoid sitting/leaving against rough surfaces,
  • reading of the instructions on care label for good handling, 5) repairing frequently.

Should not wash clothes that require dry cleaning, they fade, loose shape (loose body).

  • loose one to be laundered separately,
  • best clothes should not be worn for long,
  • brush clothes that are not washed frequently. Sponge them, air and store in polythene bags in wardrobes.
  • Store them completely dry.
  • use mothballs in wardrobes/drawers with clothes.


Choice, use and care


  1. Should fit well and comfortable why:
  • to prevent injury to feet
  • for no interference with blood circulation
  1. should be for the purpose intended.
  2. should be durable i.e of good quality, attractive in colour and well made,


  • use for one right purpose,
  • should be stored on racks,
  • stuffed to maintain shape
  • avoid the sun, they loose shape,
  • clean according to type of material for them to last long,
  • repairing when torn,

Cleaning leather shoes:

  • protecting working surface with newspaper,
  • remove shoe laces,
  • removing loose dust and mud with blunt stick,
  • wipe with a cloth wrung out of warm soapy water from inside out repeatedly till clean,
  • rinse with cloth from clean water and dry a cloth,
  • dry under a shade because direct sun makes the leather crack, brittle and shrink,
  • polish when dry using circular movement. Allow it to soak in for a few minutes, shine with a dry brush/non-fluffy cloth,
  • stuff them to maintain shape,
  • store in a dry place,
  • stuff with clean cloth and fasten shoe lace.

Cleaning canvas shoes:-

  • Remove shoe laces wash them repeatedly,
  • Remove dust and mud,
  • wash in warm soapy water, scrub with a scrubbing brush,
  • clan inside and outside,
  • avoid soaking since it loosens the gum,
  • rinse using warm water, the in cold
  • shake to remove excess water,
  • tilt against the walls/stones under a shade if coloured and on sun if white to dry,
  • if white, apply polish while damp and leave to dry,
  • wipe off excess polish with a dry duster,
  • store dry in a warm place, slightly tilted, fasten shoe laces and store.


Cleaning plastic shoes:-

  •  remove dust and mud,
  • wash in warm soapy water with a soft cloth,
  • rinse well,
  • dry in a cool airy place,
  • stuff to maintain shape and store.

Cleaning suede shoes:-

  • remove dust and mud with a stiff brush,
  • remove grease and stain,
  • wipe the insides with a cloth wrung out of warm soapy water, rinse and air,
  • apply suede polish when dry,
  • bring out the rough finish using fine brush, – stuff and store.


Are items worn with clothing to highlight points of interest:

NB:  – They should not be too many worn at the same time because they produce an      desirable effect.

  • Many should be able to accent, compliment, highlight/camouflage certain parts           of the body.
  • They should match/contrast the outfit worn.

Types of accessories;

  • Handbags, purses and briefcases.
  • is good to have a variety to rhyme with a variety of clothes, although black, white/grey are good because they rhyme with many garments.
  • size, shape and colour.

Ties and scarves

  • are worn to match, contrast/complement dressing, – ties and scarves should be dry-cleaned.

Belts Choice:

  • should be durable,
  • suitable,
  • versatile

Hats Choice:

  • should blend with the dressing,
  • should match with other accessories to accentuate/contrast outfit,
  • should go/rhyme with shape of face,
  • for formal occasions, they should be elaborate e.g weddings, graduations etc. – hats and caps e.g berets should be for casual wear,


  • airing after use,
  • storing appropriately to maintain shape.


Tights and stockings;

  • worn to accentuate dressing,
  • to keep one warm,
  • to hide ugly marks e.g soars and stretch,


  • launder them carefully because they are delicate and easily spoil, – store in clean plastic bags.


Are for keeping feet warm,


  • should be absorbent to absorb sweat and keep feet dry,
  • should be ones that blend well,
  • should be attractive,


  • change them daily to avoid bad odour,
  • keep toe nails short and neat to avoid tears on socks,
  • darn tears on socks as soon as they occur and should be before washing, – store them one in another to avoid misplacement, –       wash according to fabric.

Gloves: (NB: from synthetic knitted fabric/leather)


  • should match shoes, handbags, hats etc,


  • clean frequently and according to type, – store one in another.

Headscarves and bandanas

1) for protection of hair from dust, rain and direct sun, 2) for warmth.


  • should be from dainty fabrics, – should be clean and well laundered.


E.g      –

  • Rings
  • Earrings
  • Cuff links
  • Tie clips
  • Brooches
  • Chains
  • Bangles etc


  • avoid fancy jewellery when in uniform and during work hours – should be simple to prevent interfering with work.
  • Choose glittering and jangling ones if for evening occasions and leisure time,
  • Avoid overdressing them, they give an overdone effect,


  • Should be cleaned depending on type, – Should be stored in a jewellery box.


Understanding others;

To understand others, one needs to understand her/himself,  Understanding your parents.