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SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND:A.SULPHUR (S) Sulphur is an element in Group VI(Group 16)of the Periodic table . It has atomic number 16...





RESPIRATION ,Meaning and Significance of Respiration

  • Respiration is the process by which energy is liberated from organic compounds such as glucose.
  • It is one of the most important characteristics of living organisms.
  • Energy is expended (used) whenever an organism exhibits characteristics of life, such as feeding, excretion and movement.
  • Respiration occurs all the time and if it stops, cellular activities are disrupted due to lack of energy.
  • This may result in death e.g., if cells in brain lack oxygen that is needed for respiration for a short time, death may occur.
  • This is because living cells need energy in order to perform the numerous activities necessary to maintain life.
  • The energy is used in the cells and much of it is also lost as heat.
  • In humans it is used to maintain a constant body temperature.

Tissue Respiration

  • Respiration takes place inside cells in all tissues.
  • Every living cell requires energy to stay alive.
  • Most organisms require oxygen of the air for respiration and this takes place in the mitochondria.

Mitochondrion Structure and Function


  • Mitochondria are rod-shaped organelles found in the cytoplasm of cells.
  • A mitochondrion has a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane.
  • The folding of the inner membrane is called cristae and the inner compartment is called the matrix.

Adaptations of Mitochondrion to its Function

  • The matrix contains DNA ribosomes for making proteins and has enzymes for the breakdown of pyruvate to carbon (IV) oxide, hydrogen ions and electrons.
  • Cristae increase surface area of mitochondrial inner membranes where attachment of enzymes needed for the transport of hydrogen ions and electrons are found.
  • There are two types of respiration:
  • Aerobic Respiration
  • Respiration

 Aerobic Respiration

  • This involves breakdown of organic substances in tissue cells in the presence of oxygen .
  • All multicellular organisms and most unicellular organisms e.g. some bactena respire aerobically.
  • In the process, glucose is fully broken down to carbon (IV) oxide and hydrogen which forms water when it combines with the oxygen.
  • Energy produced is used to make an energy rich compound known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
  • It consists of adenine, an organic base, five carbon ribose-sugar and three phosphate groups.
  • ATP is synthesised from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate.
  • The last bond connecting the phosphate group is a high-energy bond.
  • Cellular activities depend directly on ATP as an energy source.
  • When an ATP molecule is broken down, it yields energy.

Process of Respiration

  • The breakdown of glucose takes place in many steps.
  • Each step is catalysed by a specific enzyme.
  • Energy is released in some of these steps and as a result molecules of ATP are synthesised.
  • All the steps can be grouped into three main stages:


  • The initial steps in the breakdown of glucose are referred to as glycolysis and they take place in the cytoplasm.
  • Glycolysis consists of reactions in which glucose is gradually broken down into molecules of a carbon compound called pyruvic acid or pyruvate.
  • Before glucose can be broken, it is first activated through addition of energy from ATP and phosphate groups.
  • This is referred to as phosphorylation.
  • The phosphorylated sugar is broken down into two molecules of a 3-carbon sugar (triose sugar) each of which is then converted into pyruvic acid.
  • If oxygen is present, pyruvic acid is converted into a 2-carbon compound called acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl Co A).
  • Glycolysis results in the net production of two molecules of ATP.
  • The next series of reactions involve decarboxylation i.e. removal of carbon as carbon (IV) oxide and dehydrogenation, removal of hydrogen as hydrogen ions and electrons.
  • These reactions occur in the mitochondria and constitute the Tri-carboxylic Acid Cycle (T.C.A.) or Kreb’s citric acid cycle.
  • The acetyl Co A combines with 4-carbon compound with oxalo-acetic acid to form citric acid – a 6 carbon compound.
  • The citric acid is incorporated into a cyclical series of reactions that result in removal of carbon (IV) oxide molecules, four pairs of hydrogen, ions and electrons.
  • Hydrogen ions and electrons are taken to the inner mitochondria membrane where enzymes and electron carriers effect release of a lot of energy.
  • Hydrogen finally combines with oxygen to form water, and 36 molecules of ATP are synthesised.

Anaerobic Respiration

  • Anaerobic respiration involves breakdown of organic substances in the absence of oxygen.
  • It takes place in some bacteria and some fungi.
  • Organisms which obtain energy by anaerobic respiration are referred to as anaerobes.
  • Obligate anaerobes are those organisms which do not require oxygen at all and may even die if oxygen is present.
  • Facultative anaerobes are those organisms which survive either in the absence or in the presence of oxygen.
  • Such organisms tend to thrive better when oxygen is present e.g. yeast.

 Products of Anaerobic Respiration

  • The products of anaerobic respiration differ according to whether the process is occurring in plants or animals.

Anaerobic Respiration in Plants

  • Glucose is broken down to an alcohol, (ethanol) and carbon (IV)
  • The breakdown is incomplete.
  • Ethanol is an organic compound, which can be broken down further in the presence of oxygen to provide energy, carbon (IV) oxide and water.

C6HI206 _ 2C2H50H + 2C02 + Energy

(Glucose) (Ethanol)   (Carbon (IV) oxide)


  • Is the term used to describe formation of ethanol and carbon (IV) oxide from grains.
  • Yeast cells have enzymes that bring about anaerobic respiration.

Lactate Fermentation

  • Is the term given to anaerobic respiration in certain bacteria that results in formation of lactic acid.

Anaerobic Respiration in Animals

  • Anaerobic respiration in animals produces lactic acid and energy.

C6H1P6 _ 2CH3CHOH.COOH + energy

(Glucose) (Lactic acid) + energy

  • When human muscles are involved in very vigorous activity, oxygen cannot be delivered as rapidly as it is required.
  • The muscle respire anaerobically and lactic acid accumulates.
  • A high level of lactic acid is toxic.
  • During the period of exercise, the body builds up an oxygen debt.
  • After vigorous activity, one has to breathe faster and deeper to take in more oxygen.
  • Rapid breathing occurs in order to break down lactic acid into carbon (IV) oxide and water and release more energy.
  • Oxygen debt therefore refers to the extra oxygen the body takes in after vigorous exercise.

 Practical Activities

To Show the Gas Produced When the Food is burned

  • A little food substance e.g., maize flour or meat is placed inside a boiling tube.
  • The boiling tube is stoppered using a rubber bung connected to a delivery tube inserted into a test-tube with limewater.
  • The food is heated strongly to bum.
  • Observations are made on the changes in lime water (calcium hydroxide) as gas is produced.
  • The clear lime water turns white due to formation of calcium carbonate precipitate proving that carbon (Iv) oxide is produced.

 Experiment to Show the Gas Produced During Fermentation

  • Glucose solution is boiled and cooled. Boiling expels all air.
  • A mixture of glucose and yeast is placed in a boiling tube, and covered with a layer of oil to prevent entry of air.
  • A delivery tube is connected and directed into a test-tube containing lime water.
  • The observations are made immediately and after three days the contents are tested for the presence of ethanol.
  • A control experiment is set in the same way except that yeast which has been boiled and cooled is used.
  • Boiling kills yeast cells.
  • The limewater becomes cloudy within 20 minutes.
  • This proves that carbon (IV) oxide gas is produced.
  • The fermentation process is confirmed after three days when alcohol smell is detected in the mixture.

Experiment to Show Germinating Seeds Produce Heat

  • Soaked bean seeds are placed in a vacuum flask on wet cotton wool.
  • A thermometer is inserted and held in place with cotton wool .
  • The initial temperature is taken and recorded.
  • A control experiment is set in the same way using boiled and cooled bean seeds which have been washed in formalin to kill micro­
  • Observation is made within three days.
  • Observations show that temperature in the flask with germinating seeds has risen.
  • The one in the control has not risen.

Comparison Between Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

  Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration
1. Site In the mitochondria. In the cytoplasm.
2. Products Carbon dioxide and water. Ethanol in plants and lactic acid in animals-
3. Energy yield 38 molecules of A TP (2880 KJ) from 2 molecules of ATP 210KJ from each
each molecule of glucose. molecule of glucose.
4. Further reaction No further reactions on carbon Ethanol and lactic acid can be broken down
dioxide and water. further in the presence of oxygen.

Comparison Between Energy Output in Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

  • Aerobic respiration results in the formation of simple inorganic molecules, water and carbon (Iv) oxide as the by­
  • These cannot be broken down further. A lot of energy is produced.
  • When a molecule of glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen, 2880 KJ of energy are produced (38 molecules of ATP).
  • In anaerobic respiration the by products are organic compounds.
  • These can be broken down further in the presence of oxygen to give more energy.
  • Far less energy is thus produced.
  • The process is not economical as far as energy production is concerned.
  • When a molecule of glucose is broken down in the absence of oxygen in plants, 210 KJ are produced (2 molecule ATP).
  • In animals, anaerobic respiration yields 150 kJ of energy.

Substrates for Respiration

  • Carbohydrate, mainly glucose is the main substrate inside cells.
  • Lipids i.e. fatty acids and glycerol are also used.
  • Fatty acids are used when the carbohydrates are exhausted.
  • A molecule of lipid yields much more energy than a molecule of glucose.
  • Proteins are not normally used for respiration.
  • However during starvation they are hydrolysed to amino acids, dearnination follows and the products enter Kreb’s cycle as urea is formed.
  • Use of body protein in respiration result to body wasting, as observed during prolonged sickness or starvation.
  • The ratio of the amount of carbon (IV) oxide produced to the amount of oxygen used for each substrate is referred to as Respiratory Quotient (RQ) and is calculated as follows:

R.Q. = Amount of carbon (IV) oxide produced

Amount of oxygen used

  • Carbohydrates have a respiratory quotient of 1.0 lipids 0.7 and proteins 0.8.
  • Respiratory quotient value can thus give an indication of types of substrate used.
  • Besides values higher than one indicate that some anaerobic respiration is taking place.

Application of Anaerobic Respiration in Industry and at Home


  • Making of beer and wines.
  • Ethanol in beer comes from fermentation of sugar(maltose) in germinating barley seeds.
  • Sugar in fruits is broken down anaerobically to produce ethanol in wines.
  • In the dairy industry, bacterial fermentation occurs in the production of several dairy products such as cheese, butter and yoghurt.
  • In production of organic acids e.g., acetic acid, that are used in industry e.g., in preservation of foods.


  • Fermentation of grains is used to produce all kinds of beverages e.g., traditional beer and sour porridge.
  • Fermentation of milk.