SAFETY IN THE HOME AND FIRST AID

SAFETY IN THE HOME AND FIRST AID

SAFETY IN THE HOME AND FIRST AID; Common accidents in the home:

  • Burns and scalds,
  • Cuts and bruises,
  • Fractures and sprains,
  • Suffocation and choking,
  • Foreign bodies in the ear, eyes and nose,
  • Shock,
  • Fainting,
  • Nose bleeding,
  • Insect stings and bites, – Snake bites, –

First Aid

It is first help given to an injured person before taking him to the doctor.  It includes attention given to small injuries for quick healing.

Objectives of first aid

  • Saves life,
  • Prevents injury from becoming worse,
  • Help recovery,
  • Is present the injured to doctor for treatment.

Dudes of first aid

  • should be calm,
  • should look at the overall solution first,
  • then handle it the best to help,
  • must take control/give help to another first aider in control,
  • should keep crowds away,
  • should prevent injury e.g not moving the injured person unless necessary,
  • should always send word around for help e.g to ring for the ambulance/call the police,
  • keep the victim warm e.g covering him or her with a blanket,
  • cover wounds to prevent infection,
  • speak calmly in order to reassure the victim, those around and yourself,
  • should kind, firm and in control,
  • should be able to get full information of what happened from those around or victim if he can talk,
  • should go with the victim to hospital if possible.

SAFETY IN THE HOME AND FIRST AID

First Aid kit

Is a box that contains materials that assist the victims in an occurrence of an accident.

NB:-

  • can be a cupboard, empty tin, box, safe container,
  • should be away from children,
  • should be in all institutions, offices factories, homes, cars and any other place where accidents can easily occur,
  • should be kept where it can be found easily incase of an emergence, – should be clearly labelled,
  • should be clean, tidy and updated.

Contents of a simple first aid kit

  • cotton wool – clean wounds,
  • bandages – dress wounds and makes slings for fractures,
  • Adhesive dressings – cover minor cut and wounds,
  • Gloves – for protection of wounds,
  • Scissors and tweezers – cutting bandages,
  • Petroleum jelly – for minor burns and stings,
  • Oilment – for massaging swellings,
  • Dissecting forceps – removing thorns / small pins of steelwool
  • Blackstone – treating snake bites
  • Clinical thermometer – taking temperature
  • Surgical blades – cutting bandages and shaving
  • Triangular sling – areas injured
  • Surgical spirit/antiseptic liquids – cleaning wounds
  • Pain killers – relieving pains

Use of medicine:

  • Reading instructions to know the side effects,
  • Using as prescribed by the doctor,
  • Taking the dose as prescribed,
  • Getting medicine from the doctor and not borrowing from each other,
  • Taking drugs prescribed by the doctor not by yourself,
  •   Keeping medicines away from children.

What happens when one doesn’t follow doctors instructions as follows:-

  • Overdosing in order to relieve pain,
  • Under dosing – it doesn’t give complete treatment and may cause drunk existence,

SAFETY IN THE HOME AND FIRST AID

CAUSES, PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF ACCIDENTS IN THE HOME

  • Untidiness
  • Exhaustion,
  • Absent-mindedness,
  • Haste,
  • Carelessness,
  • Faulty equipment,
  • Loose management and competence, –

Cuts and bruises: Prevention:

  • store knives out of children’s reach,
  • hold knives by their handles,
  • handles to be kept free from grease to avoid slippage,
  • use a chopping board when cutting veges and tomatoes,
  • avoid soaking them with dirty utensils, sharp and pointed utensils, – keep cupboard clean of bones, sharp sticks and thorns.

First Aid/management

  • small cuts should be cleaned with dilute antiseptic/salt to prevent infections,
  • cover it after drying with a sterile cloth,
  • use plasters to cover minor cuts,

apply pressure on legs and hands – clean out all dirt with gloves,

  • if it has foreign bodies remove, reassure the victim, take to the doctor for anti-tetanus injection.

Burns and scalds:

Burns are caused by dry heat while scalds are caused by moist heat e.g steam under pressure.

Prevention 

  • matches should be kept away from children,
  • curtains should not hand near the cooker,
  • steamers and lids should be removed carefully,
  • electrical appliances should be good quality ones and bushes not being left unattended at night, – be careful when deep frying,
  • avoiding trailing table clothes because they catch fire easily,
  • hot liquids to be kept away from children,
  • attending to burning refuse, hot stoves/cookers,
  • pan handles to be away from passage,
  • thick oven clothes should be used when lifting hot dishes and pans,
  • avoid leaving children/very old people in the kitchen/near unprotected fire,
  • using a candle with stand/holder.

SAFETY IN THE HOME AND FIRST AID

First Aid/management 

  • hold the part injured under slow running water/dip in cold water to prevent blisters forming, to relieve pain and prevent damage of skin,
  • for minor burns, apply petroleum jelly/soothing ointment.

for severe burns, 

  • treat for shock and take victim to hospital,
  • cover with a loose sterile dressing to prevent germs and dirt,
  • keep victim warm, calm and prevent victim from touching blisters, – reassure casualty.

POISONING

Caused by chemicals e.g farm chemicals, drugs, paraffin, alcohol, contaminated food or poisonous plants.

Prevention 

  • keep all medicines away from children reach,
  • label all materials and any poisonous agents,
  • follow doctors prescriptions when taking medicines. Avoid overdoses,
  • medicines packages and empty tins/bottles should be thrown away,

Firs Aid/management

  • find out from casualty if conscious what she/he took, – give a lot of water, milk/barley water to dilute the poison, – take victim to the doctor.

FRACTURES AND SPRAINS:

A fracture is a crack/break in the bone while a sprain is the tearing on stretching of strong tissues which holds bones together.

Causes:

slipper floor,

  • potholes, cracks, an old floor,
  • split water/oil etc.

Symptoms:

  • swelling
  • severe pain
  • lack of movement
  • change of shape

SAFETY IN THE HOME AND FIRST AID

Kinds of fractures

  • closed fracture (simple fracture)
  • open fracture (c.p.d fracture)
  • Closed results in a swelling (change in shape of point of fracture and skin is not broken).
  • Open results in skin breaking near the fracture, some times bone ends pierce through the skin.

NB: It is dangerous because the bone may be infected and become hard to heal.

 Causes of fractures – Falls

First Aid/management

  • don’t move the victims
  • support injured part / apply splints on it,
  • rat for shock,
  • take victim to the doctor.

Sprains:

Happens when one twists joint accidentally stepping on uneven ground:

Symptoms and signs

  • painful,
  • part becomes hot, – limited movement, –

First Aid:-

  • apply a cold water park / soak the joint in very cold water for 20minutes to reduce pain and swelling. Do this for joint.
  • apply a bandage firmly,
  • raise the part till swelling reduces,
  • take victim to hospital if serious for an X-ray and treatment.

CHOKING AND SUFFOCTION

As a result of obstruction of wind pipe that can be due to swallowing a sweet, marble, button/any object/food/too much liquid or gas being used at once making breathing difficult.

SAFETY IN THE HOME AND FIRST AID

First aid/management

  • let patient lean forward, slap back with flat of the hand between shoulder blades,

if it fails remove it by hooking it out with the fore finger curled downwards to root of the tongue/ make person vomit by tickling back of throat with the fore finger. give milk/water to wash it down,

if it is a child, hold upside down, pat between shoulder blades  bend child forward over the knee thumb firmly between shoulders give artificial respiration if needed.

SHOCK

TYPES            (i) Emotional shock

(ii) Surgical shock

Emotional is caused by serious upsetting news/events.  It can cause;-

  •   fainting
  • hysteria
  • depression
  • to help the person remain calm and sensible.
  • reassure him/her till state is normal.

Surgical is as a result of

  • serious burns
  • serious injury that may have been very painful.

Symptoms of shock:

  • patient is pale and cold,
  • fast/shallow breathing,
  • rapid /slow pulse rate,
  • mental confusion/general body weakness,
  • vomiting/fainting

First aid:

  • calm yourself and patient,
  • call for a doctor immediately,
  • lie down the person lower limbs raised above rest of the body,
  • cover patient with a blanket,
  • give a warm drink if conscious,
  • put patient in a place well ventilated,
  • reassure him/her,
  • give pain relievers e.g paracetamol and placing victim in a comfortable position.

Electric shock Caused by:

  • touching a live electric wire,
  • using faulty appliances with hands.

Prevention 

  • being careful not to be a victim,
  • switching off current before the victim,
  • ensuring victim are out contact,
  • moving the victim with a bad conductor of heat e.g a dry plant of wood if current can’t be turned off.
  • don’t use wet material to handle victim because water is a good conductor of electricity,
  •   when victim is safe treat for shock.

FAINTING

Caused by temporary insufficient supply of blood to the brain due to:

  • standing too long in the sun,
  • loss of blood (too much),
  • severe vomiting,
  • fear,
  • lack of air,
  • bad news,
  • unpleasant/frightening sight,

NB: Persons feels dizzy and looses consciousness

First aid/management

  • be calm,
  • lie the victim on a bed/grass in a cool place,
  • check on breathing,
  • give artificial oxygen if possible,
  • turn victim to safety position,
  • treat to stop bleeding / reduce it,
  • loosening tight clothing (neck and waist)
  • raising legs for blood to flow to the head,
  • reassuring the victim,
  • call medical expert,
  • if conscious, rest the person in a well ventilated room.

SAFETY IN THE HOME AND FIRST AID

DROWNING:-

Liquids enter air passage.

Prevention 

  • swim accompanied by an instructor,
  • cover water in container,
  • empty bath tubs,
  • don’t leave small children unattended to in the house, – drain pools around houses.

First aid / management

  • remove patient from water quickly,
  • patient should be laid head lower than rest of the body and turned to the side,
  • water is drained form respiratory tract by holding waist body slouched forward head downward for a while,
  • if child, hold upside down by legs,
  • use index finger to remove any foreign bodies from mouth,
  • loosen clothes around waist, neck and chest,
  • cover with a blanket and give artificial breathing if breath is absent, – take patient to the doctor.

NOSE BLEEDING

Caused by:

  • injury to nose
  • injury to forehead / fractured skull fever/colds etc
  • blowing nose too hard, sneezing, air pressure changes, high blood pressure.

First aid / management 

  • sit the patient on a chair if present,
  • bend the head slightly raised,
  • hold the lower part of nose firm or let patient do it,
  • breathing through mouth, place a dump cloth on forehead and neck back
  • slowly release the pressure 3-5 times repetitions, sitting the patient still

NB:- Don’t allow her/him to blow the nose

  • apply cold compression on back of neck with a piece of cloth.
  • take victim to doctor if:
    1. injury is on the head,
    2. if bleeding continues

SAFETY IN THE HOME AND FIRST AID

ENTRANCE OF FOREIGN BODIES

  1. The Eye
  • patient to sit on a chair in well lit place
  • tilt head back,
  • expose and examine inner surface of eye lids using the thumb/index finger.
  • use a strand of cotton wool (wet) and corner of a clean handkerchief to remove it.
  • drop liquid paraffin/castor oil/olive oil or milk in the eye to sooth it,
  • blow into an open eye to remove it.
  1. The Ear
  • hold a beam of light in it if in a dark room for the insect to come out,
  • tilt head, pour glycerine / liquid/paraffin till full and tilt head upside down to draw after a while,
  • take victim to hospital after putting a pad over ear and bandaging lightly.
  1. The Nose
  • close the unaffected one and blow hard through the affected,
  • patient shouldn’t poke nose,
  • take patient to the doctor if it doesn’t come out.

INSECT STINGS AND BITES

Insects bites using stings found on the tails e.g spiders, mosquitoes, lice, bed bugs, ticks, bees, wasps, hornets and scorpions stings.

  • remove sting
  • clean affected part using soapy water and mild antiseptic,
  • apply a solution of soda, vinegar or diluted ammonial water,
  • apply calamine lotion/petroleum jelly to prevent itching,
  • take victim to hospital incase of;
    1. headache
    2. swelling
    3. shock
    4. pain

SAFETY IN THE HOME AND FIRST AID

SNAKE AND ANIMAL BITES

  • need agent attention because they are poisonous,
  • tie above wound side near the heart if it is a limb,
  • wash with antiseptic water,
  • let patient lie down bitten part lowermost,
  • reassure the victim because fear makes heart beat faster and blood to circulate faster,
  • apply anti poison stone (black stone),
  • tie firmly at the place of the bite,
  • if possible identify the snake by asking from the people around,
  • take victim to doctor immediately on a stretcher,

NB: walking increases blood circulation so fast spread of the poison.

Local treatment

  • don’t do further damage
  • sterilize a razor blade and cut around the area of bite,
  • squeeze out poison,
  • take patient to hospital

ALL HOMESCIENCE NOTES FORM 1-4 WITH TOPICAL QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

PRIMARY NOTES, SCHEMES OF WORK AND EXAMINATIONS 

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