Importance of proper storage of clothes

  • to keep them neat,
  • clean
  • free from grease,

Points to note

  • ensure clothes are clean,
  • clothes should be dry,
  • well ironed,
  • drawers should be well lined
  • lining paper to be changed frequently,
  • clothes should be removed from storage facilities frequently to air them to ensure freshness,
  • shelves to be labelled according to type of articles stored,
  • socks to be kept one inside the other to prevent misplacing,
  • clothes have to be protected from pests e.g moths

Types of storage facilities 

  • built in wardrobes,
  • chests of drawers,
  • dressing tables,
  • suitcases and bores,
  • cupboards and drawers,
  • bedsides cupboards

Improvised storage facilities 

  • hooks/nails fixed on a wooden bar on wall,

a strong carton,

  • a long wire/string fixed from one wall to another across the room,
  • a movable wardrobe.


Choice and use of storage facilities

  • should be lockable e.g wardrobes drawers, cupboards etc,
  • drawers to be deep enough and slide and ease,
  • it should not be one that exposes articles to direct sunlight and dust,
  • the rod in wardrobes should be strong to stand the weight of clothes,
  • should be clear and dry with smooth surfaces that are easy to clean,
  • should be strong and durable with enough storage space,
  • hangers to be smooth, durable and other padded for delicate garments.

Care: N/B:

  • Each garment to have its hanger if possible,
  • similar garments to be in one section for easy removal,

(b) for neatness

  •  garments should be factored to keep shape and avoid slipping off,
  • iv) covering those not used frequently in polythene bags,
  • clothes should be stored in drawers, boxes, cartons after neatly folding them,

Built in wardrobe

Are built into the wall during construction of the house,

Are normally fitted with storage facilities for different garments,

Free standing wardrobe

  • also filled with drawers and some have full size mirror fixed on door,
  • it may have a shoe runk at bottom,

Chest of drawers

  • For items of clothes that need folding, top part has 2 small drawers for articles like socks, underwear and handkerchiefs,
  • Used in chest of chest of drawers or wardrobe,
  • It is for storing folded clothes where there is limited space,

Cupboards and shelves

  • some bedrooms have fitted cupboards and shelves used for storing bed linen and flat articles, – some beds have drawers under mattress and bedside cabinets for storage


Table clothes can be stored in this found in sitting room/dining room,

Reason; For easy reach when needed

Kitchen cupboards

For storing kitchen clothes e.g

  • dishcloths,
  • tea towels,
  • hand towels


Storage space above heaters

For bedline storage e.g

  • Sheets
  • Bedwarmers
  • Pillowcases
  • Towels


  1. Cartons
  • Should be chosen with care i.e should be strong
  • Used for storing flat items e.g towels, pillowcases, bed sheets, items required frequently.


  • Clothes should be completely dry before storing in cartons. –
  • Well folded. It is because cartons have no ventilation.
  • A wheel/strong string fixed on nails driven in one wall of bedroom


  • Clothes can be aired
  • Prevents clothes from wearing


They become dusty

Storing dirty clothes

  • Should not be stored together with clean ones.
  • Should be in a laundry bucket/carton
  • NB: the bucket can be plastic/woven and should be kept in one bedroom.


  • Flat articles eg bed sheets, tablecloths, pillowcases, towels, tea towels and small articles eg handkerchiefs, underwears, socks, etc.
  • Should be folded and stored in a box.drawer/carton.
  • Items should be neatly folded so as to occupy little space.
  • Socks should be one into another

Folding a shirt

  • Fasten all buttons lay shirt front on table.
  • Fold sleaves towards the back.
  • Fold shoulders also to back
  • Fold along with of garment into two/three depending on length


Flat articles

  • Bedsheets
  • Chairbacks
  • Towels
  • Handkerchiefs
  • Fold with sharp threads first
  • Fold table cloth lengthwise


Def of a seam: A method used to join two/more pieces of fabric together. It can be functional, decorative/both seams can be worked on 2.5/3.5 depending on effect deserved eg when meant for decorative purpose its worked on 2.5 and a contradicting colour of thread can be used.

Types of seams

Are four types

  • Open/plain seam
  • French seam
  • Machine fell seam/double stretched seam/overlaid/lapped seam Seams are of categories:
  • Inconspicuous seams
  • Conspicuous seams

Factors that determine choice of seam i. Types of fabrics

  • If heavy weigh an open seam suits because it will avoid holiness
  • If it’s a slean fabric a seam that hides raw edges is suitable

iii. Use of garment

– Some garments require very strong seams because they are washed frequently eg nightdresses and children clothes

  1. Position of seam
  • Some suit certain areas better than others eg overland seam attaching goves and panels in garments.
  • French seam is not suitable for curved areas.

Points to consider when making seams

  • For heavy materials make seams that are flat to avoid hollowness.
  • Should be well neatened and properly pressed
  • Machine tension should be correct to
  • Stitching should be on the stitching line
  • Should be flat seams and neat on both R.S & W.S
  • For materials that fray seams that hide raw edges should be made
  • The fell off seam should fall on back of garment
  • Seams should have even width all through

Open seam (plain seam)

Used on outer garment eg sleeves, blouses, skirts and shorts

Made from medium weight or heavy fabric

Its inconspicuous when pressed upon result slow or R.S

Use suitable for transparent edges

Method of working

  • S matching place 2 pieces of 1 fabric
  • Pin and table along filting line
  • Remove pins and machine stitch along filting line. Remove backing
  • Open seam and press flat
  • Turn one raw edges and neater seam


Neatening an open seam

  • Loop stretching
  • Edge stitching
  • Overcastting
  • Pinning
  • Branching

Factors that determine the method of neatening i) The position of the seam

  • if on straight line the seam allowance should be pressed open and neatened separately,
  • if on curved edge e.g armhole then they should be trimmed and neatened together,
  1. ii) The weight of fabric

Edge stitching and some methods cant suit heavy fabric it makes the seam bulky, iii) Type of fabric

Fraying material suit strong method of neatening that beat off raw edges.

Neatening by loop stitching

Suits light and non fraying materials.

Method of working

Measure 1cm from fitting line trim off excess fabric

  • loop stitch edge

To neaten by edge stitching

Suitable for non fraying materials of medium weight.


  • measure 1cm from fitting line,
  • fold along 1cm from fitting line to W.S of seam turnings,
  • tarts,
  • machine 1mm from fold,
  • trim excess turnings,
  • completed seam allowance should be 1cm.

To neaten by overcasting

  • suits all fabrics apart from the ones that fray.


  • Measure 1cm from full line,
  • Trim turning press open,
  • Overcast raw edges


NB: suitable for heavy and non fraying materials.

  • measure 1cm from fitting line,
  • trim the excess fabric with pinking scissors,

To neaten by bias binding

  • suits medium weight fabric,
  • NB: if heavy fabric light weight bias should be used,
  • It is good for curved edges.

Method of working

  • measure 1cm from fitting line, trim off excess materials.

place R.S of garment seam allowance to L.S of bias, pin tack machine 2mm from the raw edge,

  • turn binding to W.S of seam allowance fold binding it touch machine stitches,
  • slip stitch binding in position


French seam

  • for delicate and fine materials that fray,
  • good for garments that need frequent washing e.g

(i)children garments

(ii)underwear of fine lightlight materials.

  • not good for heavy weight fabrics because they are bulky.


  • it is strong as strain in wear is held by two rows of stitching, –
  • raw edges are completely concealed.

Method of working

  • place w.s of fabric together, pin and back 0.6cm above stitching line, – remove pins machine along fitting line, –
  • remove tacking trim off raw edges to 4mm.
  • remove pins machine along fitting line,
  • remove tacking trim off raw edges to 4mm,
  • remove pins machine along fitting line,
  • remove tacking trim off raw edges to 4mm,
  • press seam open to remove grooves with toe of iron,
  • finished fell should be 0.6cm,
  • press fell towards back of garment,

Characteristics of a good French seam

  • the width should be even,
  • should be a correct width 0.6cm,
  • should have a knife edge,



It is very strong strain is held by two rows of stitching,  suits garments that need frequent washing e.g     – nightdress

  • trousers
  • underwears

No raw edges are seen because it is self neatened.


  • it can be on r.w/w.s depending on effect desired e.g on underwears it is worked on w.s,
  • seams always stitched flat towards back of garment,
  • can be functional/decorate if the threads contracts with fabric of functional thread matches the colour of fabric,

Methods of working

  • place 2 pieces of fabrics w.s matching pin, tack and machine along f.l.
  • remove tacking press seam open,
  • trim front side to 1.5cm and back to 0.5cm,
  • make small turning on front seam allowance of 0.2cm,
  • told over back seam allowance,
  • pin tack in place and machine 0.1cm from fold,
  • the complete seam should be flat with two rows of stitching,


  • Both functional and decorative
  • Most suitable for fixing yokes and panels in dresses and skirts,
  • Mostly worked on r.s of garment,
  • Abit strong because the 3 layers are held by a row of strong stitches,

NB:- should never be used to join 2 full parts

The part that is plain should always be the overlay and the one full should be underlay.


  • Turn seam allowance to w.s along fitting line of overlay.
  • Place folded edge of overlay over fitting line for the 2 fitting lines to be together.
  • Pin and tack through the 3 thickness of fabric.
  • Remove pins machine close to fold,
  • Remove tacking, trim seam allowance to 1cm and neaten.


Methods of neatening

  1. overcastting trim turning to 1cm and overcast edges together,
  2. loop stitching trim to 1cm loop stitch edges together
  3. binding trim seam allowance to 1cm. attach bias binding over both edges and machine.
  4. self binding trim turnings of underlay to 6mm, trim turnings of overlay to 1.3cm,

make a small turning 0.2cm to w.s of overlay,

  • fold over narrow turning for fold line to touch line of machining.
  • remove pins hem it in position,
  • finished with should be 1cm,
  • this method suits light weight materials


Reasons for using patterns is to:

  • ensure
  • they help save time,
  • save fabric,
  • give accuracy
  • Patterns may be selected in relation to type, size, style and design. They can be drafted/commercial paper ones.

Choice depends on

correct fashion, season,

  • weather conditions
  • purpose/use
  • figure type

Commercial paper patterns

Are produced using standard body measurements.

  • The measurements are based on standard body figure and where figures deviate from the standards attention are done to produce well fitting patterns.
  • Start on standard body measurements
  • Misses 1.65cm – 1.65cm height without shoes.
Size     6   8   10   12
      In cm inc cm inc cm inc            cm
Bust     30.5 78 31.5 80 32.5 83 34          87
      23 88 24 65 25 64 26.5       67
      32.5 83 33.5 85 34.5 88 36          92


    15.5 39.5 15 40 16 40.5 16.25 41.5
Draw table   2,     3,  & 4 pg 103        



  1. misses is for well developed figure and proportionate in all areas,
  2. young junior/teenagers; for young woman bust and waistline larger than bust

Choosing commercial patterns

  • factors to consider when choosing commercial patterns,
  • measurements should correspond with one’s body measurements, is less for measurement, waist and hips
  • should be of current fashion,
  • style should suit figure type,
  • should have one/more styles/views,
  • if one is a beginner should choose simple patterns having simple sewing notions,
  • patterns envelope should have pattern pieces, contain measurements, materials to purchase and sewing notions,
  • the envelope should have an instruction sheet showing steps of constructing the views.


Body measurements

  • it is important to take body measurements correctly so that garments can fit well,
  • when fitting garments one should know the shortcomings of ones figure and it is good points,
  • the garments should highlight good features and hide faults,
  • to get accurate body measurements one should dress simply when being fitted,

Measurements normally taken


  • take fullest print of bust and 2 fingers need to be placed between body and tape measure for ease,


  • it is found waist with 2 finger placed between body


  • tape is placed around fullest part between 18cm and 23cm from waistline depending on height of one.

Back length

  • from nape – centre back of waist line,

Shoulder length 

  • from neck to edge of shoulder
  • full shoulder length is taken from edge of one shoulder edge of other shoulder over nape.

Back width

  • 10cm down from nape over the shoulder blades from armhole to armhole.

Shoulder to waist

  • Place the tape on shoulder close to neck over the high bust/chest to waist line,

Chest width

  • It is midway between high bust/chest and shoulder line across from arm hole to arm hole

Outer width

  • Allow a bent from edge of shoulder to waist.

Inner arm length

  • From armhole underarm to wrist with the arm outstretched at an angle of 45”


Round armhole

  • At edge of shoulder round the upper arm giving enough allowance for ease of movement

. Wrist measurement

  • It is at wrist around wrist bone. It is important to ensure the size of buff is neither too wide nor too tight.

Skirt length

  • Determined by taste and fashion.
  • Measured from waistline at back downwards but if figure is full should be from side and front from waistline.

Figure type in classes

  • Tall and plump
  • Should reduce height and fullness,
  • They suit small designs vertical lines and skirt plus blouse outfits
  • Shouldn’t wear tightly fitting flared skirts and bright fabrics

Short and plump

  • short outfits that give an illusion of height to make figure appear slimmer,
  • they also suit small prints and vertical lines,
  • they should avoid clothes from bulky fabrics and twice with a lot of fullness at waist,
  • avoid contracting broken outfits and wide belts because they tend to reduce height and add width.

Tall and slender

  • should be styles that add fullness and reduce height,
  • horizontal liens suit because they make a figure appear less tall and full,
  • fabrics new suit because they add fullness and reduce height,

Short and slim 

  • it is a figure called petite,
  • fabrics and styles that add width and height suit,
  • very larger patterns, wide belts bangles, boots, watches, buff links and bouties don’t suit,
  • contracting broken outfit having vertical/horizontal lines also don’t suit, they make a figure smaller,
  • slim gently flawed skirts, smooth fabrics with small prints suit,

Heavy hips and large bust

  • avoid shiny fabrics,
  • avoid pockets because they enhance the bulky look,
  • clinging ones are not suitable instead one should wear vertical lines and plain necklines with little accessories,
  • one should also avoid bulky fabrics with fullness.

Average figure

  • it is a standard well proportional figure or standard figure that looks nice in almost any style,
  • commercial patterns are bread on standard body measurements so one has to make alterations to suit them.

Pattern symbolic and markings

  • are markings found on commercial and drafted patterns,
  • they act as guides to the worker when laying, cutting out and joining and making the garment,
  • they should always be transferred to fabric if good results have to be achieved, – examples of pattern markings



  • lengthwise/crosswise threads in a fabric,
  • Lengthwise threads are referred to as warp,
  •   Cross wage are wefts.


A narrow firm edge on both lengthwise finished edges of a never fabric.


Any direction away from true straight lengthwise/crosswise threads, True bias runs diagonally to warp and weft.

Symbols used on patterns 1.  ↔ Straight line

It is placed to run parallel to warp/weft,

  • place on fold

Arrow points the fold of fabrics,

  • ← cutting line

It is thick outer line.  Sometimes has a symbol of scissors

  • .. Alteration line

Its man to lengthen/shorten

  • ←←← direction of stick
  • ─ cutting line

Stitching line                                       seam allowance

NB:- sometimes numbered to be matched with corresponding notch, on another piece, e.g back notch and front notch on a bodice.

NB:- also called balance marks.  Are always cut outside.

Drafting and developing patters for an apron

  • Used for protection of clothing e.g in kitchen cooking, when cleaning the house, doing laundry work etc.

NB:- the fabric must be firm to stand frequent washing.

Materials suitable

  • Printed jinja
  • Plain jinja
  • Poplin
  • Khaki/denim for heavy duty ones,

Preparations of fabric and cutting out.

  • Pressing because creases can lead to wrong measurements and poorly drawn pattern,
  • Checking the grain by folding fabric selvedges together and weft edges should lie flat and even,
  • Pulling fabric in opposite direction of off grain start to gain, checks/stripes can be used as a guide,
  • Pulling a thread across the fabric to ensure edge is straight,


Rules for pattern layout and cutting out

  • ironing pattern pieces before laying out on fabric,
  • following the layout diagram with fabric folded length wise R.S facing selvedge together,
  • grainline should always be parallel to selvedge,
  • all corners and curves should be pinned accurately for pattern pieces, not to move out of place when cutting,
  • work should be held firmly and cutting should be with long strikes and no tying of work,
  • all patterns markings needed for garment and should be turning for accurately,
  • pattern pieces should be removed carefully folded and kept in an envelope,

Method of transferring markings

  • carbon paper and tracing wheel,
  • long and short tacking using constructing coloured thread,
  • tailor tacks,
  • thread marking,
  • tailor’s chalk



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