Wednesday, June 12, 2024

LANJET PRE-MOCKS TERM 1 2024 QUESTIONS & ANSWERS.

LANJET PRE-MOCKS TERM 1 2024 QUESTIONS &...

EXTENDED HOLIDAY ASSIGNMENTS TERM 1 2024 FORM 3 Q&A.

EXTENDED HOLIDAY ASSIGNMENTS TERM 1 2024 FORM...

EXTENDED HOLIDAY ASSIGMENTS FORM 2 TERM 1 2024.

EXTENDED HOLIDAY ASSIGMENTS FORM 2 TERM 1...

Become a member

Get the best offers and updates relating to Liberty Case News.

― Advertisement ―

spot_img

SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND

SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUND:A.SULPHUR (S) Sulphur is an element in Group VI(Group 16)of the Periodic table . It has atomic number 16...

CARBON AND ITS COMPOUND

WATER AND HYDROGEN

HomeNotesHOMESCIENCE NOTESNEEDLEWORK STITCHES

NEEDLEWORK STITCHES

NEEDLEWORK STITCHES

Characteristics of a good stitch

  • should be of good tension (not too loose not too tight),
  • of good density,
  • good length,
  • should have a neat beginning and ending,
  • should have a neat joining,

NB:- Points to note when stitching

  1. never start a stitch with a knot when making permanent stitches, why? – it tends to become loose and comes out.
  2. start with a backstitch/double backstitch if making permanent stitches
  3. make two firm stitches between last one, pass thread between two layers if materials is cut off,
  4. joining in a new thread by making 2 firm backstitches ahead of last stitch, – stitches should be of correct tension.
  5. colour of thread chosen should match /contrast that of fabric,
  6. a suitable needle should be used,
  7. should be correct stitch for intended purpose,
  8.  use a thimble to protect middle finger from being sored,
  9. work stitches correctly, firmly and neatly.

NEEDLEWORK STITCHES

Classification of stitches

  1. Temporary

They hold together before working.

  1. Permanent ones

They are normally removed immediately permanent ones are put.

NB: some stitches can have more than one use.

Examples 

(1)                   Tackling stitches

They hold darts, hems, pleats and seams together before working permanent stitches.

Types 

  1. even tacking,
  2. long and short tacking

Even tacking

  • When working, the main parts of fabric should hang down from hand.
  • Worked from left to right,
  • It is began by a backstitch and ended with the same,
  • It should be 10mm long on L.S & N.S

Long and short tacking

  • Hold soft and slippery fabrics together,
  • Begin with a backstitch and a 5mm stitch is made followed by a 10mm one.

Basting stitches (diagonal tacking)

  • Used to hold layers of fabric together temporarily e.g collars, pleats, bands, yoke, lining etc. –
  • worked from any direction left-right /right-left.
  • work has to be left flat,
  • began with a backstitch and a 1cm long stitch is made and another 2cm above and below.

Tailors tacks

  • for making pattern markings and double fabrics.
  • it ensures all sides are marked accurately at the same time,
  • worked with a double thread,
  • began with a backstitch and tacking of approximately 1cm is made leaving a loop ½cm long between end stitch then end with a backstitch,
  • the 2 layers of fabric are pulled apart and strands in the middle cut, Tufts are left marking the line on one side and stitches on the other.

NEEDLEWORK STITCHES

(2) Permanent stitches worked permanently let on garment as long as its in use, NB:-

  • Functional stitches,
  • Decorative
  • Functional stitches

i.e those used for neatening raw edges. E.g 

  1. Loop stitch
  • for neatening raw edges of seams;
    1. Decorating
    2. Finishing edges of small articles
  • From left to right, edge held towards the worker.
  • If for decoration, stitches should be spaced and if for neatening should be close, – The stitch is started by inserting needle into R.S of material required width. –           Insert needle same depth and space properly.

Buttonhole stitch

For neatening raw edges of buttonholes because it has a knotted edge that makes it strong.

  • from left to right,
  • pass double thread under the needle left-right,
  • stitch is drawn upwards and single thread is held in right hand and pulled gently till the knot just rests on edge,
  • stitches should be close to each other.

Overcastting 

  • it is used for neatening raw edges,
  • from left to right,
  • needle is brought out a few threads below edge,
  • its put back to front a little further right, to make a starting stitch,
  • several slanting stitches are made over the edge, – NB:
  • Should be loose stitches – Should be close to each other
  • Should be even.
  1. Stitches for joining
  • g oversewing used for
  • to join 2 folded edges,
  • from right to left,
  • two edges are placed together and straight stitches are worked back to front,
  • the stitches should be shallow, – they should be close to one another,
  • they should be lightly made.

Backstitches:

it is a strong stitch that can be used in one of machine,

  • the stitches look like machine stitches,
  • like stems stitch on W.S,
  • can be used to make a strong beginning and finishing for the stitches,
  • from right to left and first stitch is made,
  • the needle is brought back to first stitch and is brought forward again space being even,
  • stitches are repeated and angle of every stitch must be same for stitches on W.S to overlap in same direction

NEEDLEWORK STITCHES

Running stitches Uses:

  • making gathers,
  • joining pieces of fabric together,
  • joining seams of garments that don’t undergo a lot of strain,

NB:-

  • should be equal in length,
  • should have equal spacing,
  • from right to let

Faggoting stitches

  • they are embroidery stitches,
  • for joining two edges decoratively,
  • NB: edges to be joined, must be tacked to a paper strip before working them, – Edges should be parallel to each other
  1. Stitches for holding hems

Can be functional e.g hemming, slip hemming, machining and decorative stitches e.g hem stitch, herring bone, whooping etc.

Hemming stitches

For holding bindings and catching folded edges e.g hems and facings.  From right to left on W.S.  Edges to be stitched are held towards the worker.

NB:

  • Stitches should be close together,
  • Evenly spaced,
  • Begin and end with a backstitch,
  • Should be invisible on R.S of fabric

Making

  • needle is passed through fold,
  • left to right and brought out on fold,
  • end of thread is tacked under fold,
  • a few threads from fabric below fold are picked and brought in a few threads above fold, and needle is started a triangle,
  • it is continued till end of work and a few stitches made backwards to strengthen

Slip hemming

  • not so strong a method,
  • it is almost invisible on both sides,
  • can be used on outer garments
  • needle is brought through fold and one/two threads picked from single fabric,
  • needle is returned to first position in fold and slipped through the fold from right and left,
  • stitch is repeated till end of work. A few stitches are worked backwards and needle passed through fold and cut off,
  • gap between stitches should be 0.5cm.

NEEDLEWORK STITCHES

machine stitch:

  • strong and firm stitch,
  •  it is done by machine,
  • can be straight / zigzag depending on effect,
  • two turnings are made and held by tacking,
  • the machine is set to straight stitch/zig zag

DECORATIVE STITCHES

(i) used to hold hems.

e.g hemming bone stitch – a very strong stitch,

  • used to hold hems of fabric that don’t fray,
  • mostly used on
  • (i) babies clothes,

(ii) when attaching patches

  • its began with a backstitch slightly above raw edges,
  • from left to right,

To make:-

  • start with a running stitch on single material just below raw edges out under the end of backstitch,
  • next running stitch is made in double material a little to right,
  • needle is brought out above end of first running stitch,
  •  it is repeated severally.

Whipping

  • for making edges fine,
  • from right to left,
  • made by rolling edge of material to wip,
  • needle is inserted slanting from back and brought out under roll,
  • the roll should enclose raw edges,
  • its began with a double stitch and stitched backwards over last three stitches to strengthen.

NEEDLEWORK STITCHES

Running stitches:-

  • can be used to decorate edge of fray clothe and small articles.

How?

  • one / two rows of running stitches are made,
  • a contrasting colour of thread is used,
  • every stitch is threaded through/whipped to decorate,
  • stitch slants on R.S.

(ii) embroidery stitches

For decorative purposes

  • may be simple/elaborate,
  • to make beautiful ones one should use different stitches and different threads,

Examples:

  1. cross stitchs
  2. chain stitch
  3. satin
  4. hazy daisy stitch

(i) Cross stitch

  • worked on two lines,
  • threaded needle is inserted into material vertically facing worker on lower line
  • it is brought out on upper line taking vertical stitch through fabrics W.S.
  • it is repeated severally to end outer half of stitch with completed.

(ii) Chain stitch

Used for          (i)  holding hems,

(ii) marking initials

  • from right to left,
  • made by a series of loops on surface of fabric,
  • the needle is brought out through fabric,
  • its worked towards the worker thread is held firmly under thumb,
  • needle is put back into same hole bringing out short distance ahead and above loop of thread, – pull needle loop tight, put needle back into same hole and repeat stitch severally, – avoid pulling thread too tightly because it spoils shape of stitch.

(iii)Lazy daisy stitch

  • it is detached chain stitch stemming from centre point forming a flower petal,
  • needle is passed through of fabric and at the centre of the fabric,
  • needle is inserted as close as point of needle emerges at furthest end.
  • Thread is placed under needle and pulled through fabric to form a loop,
  • a short stitch is used to hold end of loop in place,
  • needle is brought to centre and next petal is started.

NEEDLEWORK STITCHES

Satin stitch

  • used for filling shaped spaces e.g leaves flowers,
  • the thread is fastened with a backstitch and stitch worked in horizontal sloping manner, stitches should be even and closer,
  • worked from left to right.

Stem stitch

  • simplest of decorative stitches,
  • its beauty depends on regularity of working,
  • from left to right,
  • used for cutting straight / curved linen,

NEEDLEWORK STITCHES

ALL HOMESCIENCE NOTES FORM 1-4 WITH TOPICAL QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

PRIMARY NOTES, SCHEMES OF WORK AND EXAMINATIONS